Water Pollution – Causes, Effects & Control

Water Pollution – Defination, Effects & Control

Water is essential for life. Without water life would have been impossible. The slogan, ‘Save Water, Water will save you’ tell us the importance of water. Such slogans tell us to save water. Apart from saving water, maintaining its quality is also equally important.

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Now a days water is getting polluted due to human activities and the availability of potable water in nature is becoming rare day by day. Water pollution is defined as “The addition of foreign substances or factors like heat which degrades the quality of water, so that it becomes health hazard or unfit to use.”

Water Pollution

The water pollutants originate from both natural and human activities. The source of water pollution is classified as Point and Non-point source.

Easily identified source of place of pollution is called as point source. Example: municipal and industrial discharge pipes.

Non-point source cannot be identified easily, example: agricultural runoff, mining wastes, acid rain, and storm-water drainage and construction sediments.

Table 15.2: List of major water pollutants and their sources.



1. Microorganisms 1. Domestic sewage, domestic waste water, dung heap
2. Organic wastes 2. Domestic sewage, animal excreta, food processing factory waste, detergents and decayed animals and plants,
3. Plant nutrients 3. Chemical fertilisers
4. Heavy metals 4. Heavy metal producing factories
5. Sediments 5. Soil erosion by agriculture and strip-mining
6. Pesticides 6. Chemicals used for killing insects, fungi and weeds
7. Radioactive substances 7. Mining of uranium containing minerals
8. Heat 8. Water used for cooling in industries

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