How to Check CBSE Class 10 Result?

The central board of secondary education will release class 10 results 2021 in July on the CBSE official website. The board will conduct 2021 board exams between February and March. Students who will appear for the board exams can check their class 10 results on the official website- by entering their credentials such as admit card, roll no., DOB, and the school information. Keep in mind the class 10 results will be checked online only through the CBSE website. However, the certificates and mark sheet will be provided by the school administration to the candidates. More information related to the CBSE class 10 exam is given below. 

CBSE Class 10 Exam Details

  • CBSE class 10 2021 Exam – May 2021
  • CBSE results- July 2021

CBSE Class 10 Results 2021

  • Exam board- Central board of secondary education
  • Exam- Class 10 secondary exam
  • CBSE results website-
  • Exam type- national
  • Numbers of candidates- approx. 3.4 lakhs
  • Passing percentage- a minimum of 45%

CBSE class 10 results in 2020

In the year 2020, the central board of secondary education released class 10 results on 15 July 2020. At that time CBSE released results based on an alternative grade system. This can be calculated as follows:

  • The CBSE cancelled class 10 and 12 examinations due to the outbreak of COVID-19. Therefore, the students who have appeared for the examination in more than three subjects, their average score were calculated who have scored highest in three main subjects. 
  • If the students have appeared in less than three subject’s examination, the average scores were calculated based on the two highest-scoring subjects. 
  • If the students have appeared in less than three exams the average score was calculated on their appeared exams and their assessment and practical performance. 

Approximately, 17 lakh students have appeared in class 10 CBSE exams which were held in February and March month. The last exam was computer science which was cancelled due to COVID-19. The last year 2019 the CBSE results were declared on May 6. 

How to check the CBSE class 10 results 2021 online

To check class 10 CBSE results online must follow the given steps:

  1. First, visit the official CBSE website i.e.
  2. There, you will find the check results link— click on the link.
  3. Now enter the credentials such as DOB, roll no, school name, centre name, admit card, and admit card ID, and more.
  4. Then click on the submit button.
  5. The results will appear in a few seconds on the screen. 
  6. You can download or save the results by taking a screenshot.

How to check CBSE Class 10 results via SMS

If you want to check the class 10 CBSE results via SMS then you can do it conveniently. Students have an option to check the results via their registered mobile number by the given results.

The IVRS (interactive voice response system) is a feature that you need to use here for checking the results. You can call on the number- 24300699 and get registered with updates. Students need to enter the area code before calling on the number.

Details of CBSE class 10 results On the CBSE website

On the official website of the CBSE board, you will find the following details about the results

  • Name of examination
  • Board name
  • Class
  • Student name
  • Roll number
  • Mother’s name
  • Father’s name
  • DOB
  • Subjects
  • Practical marks
  • Total marks
  • Pass/fail

Digilocker for class 10 CBSE results

To check class 10 CBSE results via Digilocker, follow the given steps:

  • Visit the Digilocker and login to it by using CBSE registered mobile number or student’s Aadhaar number.
  • After this, you will receive OTP for verification.
  • Once the OTP is confirmed, the students can check the details of the results on the screen.

FAQs on Check CBSE Class 10 Result

Q1. What after class 10 results?

Answer. Once the results are declared, students are requested to collect their academic marks sheet and character certificate from their schools. Hence, you can proceed with further studies. 

Q2. What if I won’t be able to check the class 10 results online?

Answer. If you are unable to do so this because of heavy traffic on the website, due to many students checking results across the various cities and states simultaneously, try after some time or the day after the results are declared. You can also take the help of SMS to check the results.

Q3. What if I have failed in a few subjects?

Answer. If you have failed in a few subjects like computer, science, etc. so, you have the option to attempt these exams to clear your class 10. Detailed information about supplementary exams can be found on the CBSE official website.

Iran War Date and Year | Everything You Need To Know About Iran War | Casualties, Movies and Facts About Iran

Iran War

Iran War: The Iran War with Iraq took place in the 1980s which began when Iraq decided to invade Iran. The Iran War has often been compared with the brutalities of the First World War, not in terms of the countries fighting it, but in terms of the tactics which were used to fight them.

The war began on 22nd September 1980 and lasted for almost eight years, ending on 20th August 1988. The Iraq-Iran War began when Iraq decided to act upon the territorial dispute violently – by taking over the area of Khuzestan. Khuzestan, being at the border of the two countries towards the Iranian side, consisted mostly of ethnic Arabs, and Iraq claimed certain suzerainty on this land, thus the dispute.

It was on the 22nd of September, 1980, that Iraq first invaded Iran with a more-or-less failed airstrike as it did not do much damage to Iran’s air force. The next day came a ground invasion spanning a front of about 644 kilometres from three different sides, surrounding the concerned troops. A battle on this day at Khorramshahr left thousands of casualties on either side of the war.

Want to know how many wars and conflicts took place in History and changed the world? Check out this available List of Wars and Battles.

The year 1981 saw the Battle of Dezful and a human wave attack on the side of the Iranians upon falling short of weaponry but holding a surplus of voluntary men. Several operations were carried out by both sides in attempts to outsmart one another and defeat each other in the war, but the war carried forward for six more years even despite this.

In the year 1982, with the support of Ronald Raegan, the American President at the time, Iraq was supplied with weapons, even from France and West Germany, showing great support for Iraq’s motives. 1982 also saw that Saddam Hossein, then President of Iraq, wished to call a ceasefire, but Ruhollah Khomeini (then-Supreme Leader of Iran) refused, only agreeing to the same if the government in Iraq was changed completely.

Over the next five years, the tables turned when Iran began to launch offensive operations against Iraq, and the question was now of not allowing Iran to annexe part of Iraq’s land. The war made a complete about-turn in its final years, as Iraq’s economy was in shambles with the excessive expenditure on military costs.

Iran War Movies

Towards the end, Iraq had taken in troops from its neighbouring countries which were on its side, and their weaponry outnumbered that of Iran by 6 to 1. Iran continued its human wave attacks, while Iraq built up their offence – at this point, hundreds of thousands of troops had been a part of this war, and most of them were now casualties. Iraq threatened WMDs and so Iran responded with missile attacks, and so it went on until the 20th of August, 1988. It was on this day that both countries signed a ceasefire under the supervision of the United Nations and ended the Iraq-Iran War.

Iraq-Iran War Date and Year | What is the date and year of the Iraq-Iran War?

The Iraq-Iran War date and year begin from 22nd September 1980 and lasted until 20th August 1988. It was a gruesome war where all kinds of tactics and offence techniques were used by both sides. What started as an attack by Iraq on Iran about the territory of Khuzestan turned into many other conflicts over the next near-eight years. With quickly moving defences and offences, the Iraq-Iran War was at the centre-stage of world politics at the time when it took place.

What Were Date and the Year of the Iran War?

The Iran War began on 22nd September 1980 when Iraq landed an airstrike as well as a foot war on the disputed territory of Khuzestan in Iran. The idea of Iraq here was that that land belonged to Iraq, and they had to besiege it from Iran through the power of the force. Iran retaliated in just as powerful a manner as Iraq had attacked, thus, the war went on for almost 8 years, ending on 20th August 1988.

Why Did the Iran War Take Place?

It is a common misconception that Iran is one of the Arabic states when it is not – Iran’s roots lie in that of the Aryan race and not of the Arab world. This is the first thing to understand the main reason why Iraq waged war on Iran. The territory of Khuzestan is a highly oil-rich district that lies on the Iran-Iraq national border, on the Iranian side. Oil is one of the most important resources in the world, meaning that whichever country had access to the most reserves of the same would be richer than the others, and thus, more powerful. Human nature is such that it thrives off of the want for power. Khuzestan also happens to be an area with a dense population of ethnic Arabs, and this was the pull factor and the ownership that Iraq seemed to have to that land.

Adding to this, there was also Shatt al-Arab, a waterway used to transport oil, which was also a waterway under severe dispute between the Iraqis and Iranians. It was because Iraq wanted control of the oil-rich district of Khuzestan populated by Arabs, in contrast with the non-Arab Iranian population, that Iraq waged war on Iran.

Iran War Casualties

How Did the Iran War Start?

On 22nd September 1980, the Iraqi forces landed an airstrike on Iran, which did not do much damage, as it were, due to the well-built defences of the Iranian forces. The day following the failed attempt of an airstrike, the Iraqi forces went in on foot, covering a frontier distance of 644 kilometres, spread out over three attacks divided into six divisions. Four of these six divisions was stationed at the Khuzestan territory, while the remaining two were stationed at the Shatt al-Arab to block shipments. This began the Iran War against Iraq of the 1980s.

Who Won the Iraq-Iran War?

The Iraq-Iran War was declared to a close through a ceasefire overseen by the United Nations on 20th August 1988, thus, there was no particular winner nor loser. The Provincial territory of Khuzestan, however, still remains under Iran.

For How Long Did The Iraq-Iran War Go On?

The Iraq-Iran War began on 22nd September 1980 and ended on 20th August 1988 through a ceasefire operated by the United Nations. However, regular diplomatic relations did not ensue between the troops of the two countries until the formal peace agreement was signed on August 16th 1990. Officially, the war came to a close in 7 years, 10 months, 4 weeks and 1 day.

What Were The Casualties of the Iraq-Iran War?

While the absolute number of casualties remains unknown to this day, hundreds of thousands of people died during the Iraq-Iran War. This includes troops on both sides of the border as well as civilians. Reports say that close to 5 lakh troops, as well as 5 lakh civilians, making a total of 10 lakh individuals, died, but other reports say that those numbers could even be double of what we know.

Who Proposed The Ceasefire in 1982?

In 1982, almost two years into the war, Saddam Hossein, the then President of Iraq called for a ceasefire with Iran. This came from the fact that he had not anticipated how strong of an army Iran had in its hiding and the defences of Iran had drained Iraq of its reserves.

Why Did Khomeini Refuse To Accept The Ceasefire in 1982?

Khomeini, the then-Supreme Leader of Iran, refused to accept the ceasefire of 1982 proposed by Saddam Hossein. This was because Khomeini had asked for a complete breakdown of the Iraqi government and for a new government to be put in place of Hossein’s. Iraq did not agree to his terms and, thus, Khomeini refused to accept the ceasefire.

Which Countries Supported Iraq in the Iraq-Iran War?

Most of the world was in favour of Iraq during the Iraq-Iran War of the 1980s. This includes the United States as well as the Soviet Union, most of the Arab countries, i.e. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and others. The US even sent Iraq lots of weaponry and armour to continue the war.

Iran War Facts

Which Countries Supported Iran in the Iraq-Iran War?

As compared to Iraq, Iran had almost no supporters on its side. The two countries vouching for Iran were Libya and Syria, but Iran did its best to fend off its attackers with much littler help from the world in comparison with Iraq.

Some Facts about the Iran War

The following are a few facts about the Iran war:

  • The war between Iran and Iraq took place in the 1980s and lasted for almost a whole of 8 years.
  • The Iraq-Iran War was a result of the various political, economic and territorial disputes between the two countries, from the usage of the Shatt al-Arab waterway or the Khuzestan Province which was rich in oil and had mostly ethnic Arabs populating it.
  • Saddam Hossein tried to call off the war in 1982, two years after it started, however, Ruhollah Khomeini refused to accept the ceasefire as his terms were not met by Hossein.
  • Both sides, Iran as well as Iraq, had extremely strong defence as well as offence strategies, thus, the war waged on for a very long time and had many ups and downs.
  • The War was incredibly bloody and gruesome and there were close to a million casualties on both sides of the border, half of which includes civilians as well.
  • The War finally ended with a ceasefire facilitated by the United Nations on 20th August 1980.
  • The final elements of fighting troops were erased only after the official peace agreement between the two countries was signed on 16th August 1990, two years after the war officially ended.

Best Movies to Watch About Iran War

The following are some good movies to watch to understand the Iraq-Iran War better:

  • Persepolis (a graphic novel by Marjane Satrapi which has been adapted into an animated film)
  • The Passage (an Iranian film)
  • The Third Day

Rhinoceros Essay | Essay on Rhinoceros for Students and Children in English

Essay on Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros Essay: Rhinoceros is a large animal with horns and thick skin. They are herbivores that means they eat only plants and fruits. Few animals like African and Asian Elephants are taller at the shoulder than the rhinoceros. The species of rhinoceros are Indian rhinoceros, white rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, and many more species. The white and black rhinoceros are found in Africa while the Indian, the Javan, and the Sumatran rhinoceros are found in the Asian region.

Let’s know more about this mammal and also get to know some interesting facts.

Long and Short Essays on Rhinoceros for Students and Kids in English

A long essay of 450-500 words has been provided it is useful for students in classes 7, 8, 9, and 10. For the reference of students in Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, a short essay of 100-150 words has been provided.

Essay about Rhinoceros

Long Essay on Rhinoceros 500 Words in English

A rhinoceros is a member of any of the five extant species of odd-toed ungulates related to a family of Rhinocerotidae. Out of five extant species, two of the extant species are found in Africa and southern Asia. The term rhinoceros is used for the extinct species of Rhinocerotoidea. The description of rhinoceros is they are at least one tonne in weight, have a herbivores diet, two horns, a brain(400-600 g), and a thick protective skin of around 1.5-5 cm. The skin of the rhinoceros is made of layers of collagen which got positioned in a lattice structure. Some of the species of rhinoceros don’t have teeth so they depend on their lips to pluck the leaves or flowers for their food. 

It is observed that some of the countries operate a black market for selling horns of the rhinoceros. The main reason for rhinoceros to go extinct is because hunters kill the rhinoceros for their horns. Their horns are sold at a very high price and are in great demand, however, it is now strictly illegal. It is believed that the horns of the rhinoceros were being used for therapeutic uses as they are made of keratin. However, It is now observed through a report, that the black, Javan and the Sumatran rhinoceros are mostly endangered. 

Talking about the species of the rhinoceros, white rhinoceros have two subspecies and that are Southern white rhinoceros and Northern white rhinoceros. The population of Southern subspecies is wildly observed as nearly 20,000 old. The appearance of the white rhino is like an immense body with a short head and broad chest. If we talk about the black rhinoceros then it has four subspecies and that is South-Central, South-Western, East African, and West African. The South-Central rhinoceros are found in the areas of Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Southwestern is usually found in western South Africa, and also in western Botswana. The east African species are found in Tanzania and the West African species were declared extinct in 2011 according to a report. 

Rhinoceros move alone and not in a group. However, the white rhinoceros are an exception and move in a group. Rhinoceros have poor eyesight but their sense of smelling and hearing are very strong and acute. Mostly rhinoceros avoid charging at humans but the black rhinoceros are very short-tempered and provocation should be avoided at all costs. Even after having the bulk body structure, they are very agile and attain a speed of 45 km per hour. Rhinoceros communicate with infrasonic frequencies just like elephants which can be heard by humans. Rhinoceros have a very low reproduction rate. The female rhinoceros cannot have a baby until they are 6 years old.  They can only give birth to one calf at a time. The Indian rhinoceros can conceive faster if she loses her calf. 

Short Essay on Rhinoceros 150 words in English

Rhinoceros is a large and bulky mammal usually found in Tanzania and Zimbabwe and many more countries. They have thick skin, short heads, thick legs and two horns. Some species have only one horn. The number of rhinoceros is decreasing as they are being hunted for horns and sold at the black market, however, it is strictly illegal. The horns of the rhinoceros are made up of keratin. Many species of rhinoceros are present across the world like Indian rhinoceros such as Javan rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, and white rhinoceros. Rhinoceros usually move around individually but the white rhinoceros move in a group of at least 10 rhinoceros or more. They are calm in nature when provoked, they can be dangerous and deadly. There are many campaigns arising to protect the rhinoceros, suggesting not to provoke them to prevent their extinction. 

10 Lines on Rhinoceros Essay in English

  1. They are mammals with thick skin.
  2. Rhinoceros communicate with infrasonic frequencies.
  3. They have weak eyesight but good hearing and smelling sense.
  4. Indian rhinoceros, javan rhinoceros, black rhinoceros are some of the species of rhinoceros.
  5. They usually move in isolation.
  6. They are found in countries like Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and Zambia. 
  7. The horns of the rhinoceros are made up of keratin.
  8. They are calm nature animals and usually avoid contact with humans.
  9. They follow a herbivores diet.
  10. The reproduction cycle of rhinoceros is very low.

Essay for Rhinoceros

FAQs on Rhinoceros essay

Question 1. How many horns does a rhinoceros have?

Answer: Usually there are two horns but in some species, there is only one horn.

Question 2. What are the names of some species of rhinoceros?

Answer: Some of the names of species of rhinoceros are Indian rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, and white rhinoceros. 

Question 3. How do rhinoceros communicate with one another?

Answer: Rhinoceros communicate with the help of infrasonic frequencies with one another. 

Zebra Essay | Essay on Zebra for Students and Children in English

Essay on Zebra

Zebra Essay: Zebras are African equines who are striped with black and white coats. It’s quite common to see zebras at the zoos. They move, gallop and trot like horses thus, resembling them a lot. They are known as wild animals since they are not domesticated. They fall into the Equidae family where the horses and donkeys are also included. There are three different types of species of Zebras and we are going to learn more about it in this article.

Long and Short Essays on Zebra for Students and Kids in English

A long essay of 450-500 words has been provided it is useful for students in classes 7, 8, 9, and 10. For the reference of students in Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, a short essay of 100-150 words has been provided.

Essay about Zebra

Long Essay on Zebra 500 Words in English

Zebras mostly sleep while standing which is similar to that of horses. Their way of communication with each other is by snorting, barking, or whinnying. When they are tensed or calm, it is their ears that are used for communication. Now, there are different ways to understand their physiology such as if the ears standstill in an upright position it means they are calm, but if the ears are pushed forward, it means they are frightened or tensed.

It’s mostly lions and hyenas that hunt them. In case a zebra is threatened, they form a circle facing outward to threaten the predator and would either kick or bite. They have long black strips which help them to some extent from predators as it camouflages well with the long grass. Thus, aiding them to get away from their predator like lions because lions cannot distinguish colours. Zebras are mostly hunted for their skin. The Grevy’s Zebra comes under endangered species.

Their eyes are located at the sides of their heads which help them see at a better angle while a predator is around and secure themselves. These animals have an excellent sense of taste, smell, and have good hearing power as well. It is their strong night vision that helps them see at night and helps them stay away from predators. Their shiny coat on the body helps to have control of the heat from the sun.

The wild zebras can have a lifespan of 25 years. The height at the shoulder varies from 1.1 to 1.5 m and they can weigh around 200 kg to 450 kg. Zebras have large and rounded ears. It is not possible to ride zebras, unlike horses. This is because they are aggressive and can kick or bite if one gets closer to them. Zebras make a lot of noises which include snorting, braying, and high pitched barking to communicate within a group. These herbivores animals can run at the speed of 66 km/hr and sometimes outpacing their natural predators as well. 

It is zebra’s stripes that disperse more than 80 per cent helping them to prevent sunburn. Female zebras are capable of giving birth to one offspring at a time and their gestation period is between 12 to 13 months. Baby Zebras also known as foals are born with brown and white stripes, at the time of birth. At the time of birth, these foals weigh up to 70 pounds and begin grazing in almost one week. They can take 7 to 16 months to become grown-up adults. They can travel long distances. Zebras play a crucial role in other herbivores’ lives by helping in clearing the way for the growth of tender new leaves and grasses.

Short Essay on Zebra 150 words in English

Zebras, one of the most fascinating mammals, belong to the category of ‘Perissodactyla’ and are one of the most beautiful animals with black and striped coats. They are considered as one of the most aesthetic animals due to their black and white stripes which sets them apart from others. 

It is quite amazing to know that no zebra can have the same pattern of stripes. The patterns vary with the species they belong to. They are particularly found in Savannah. They can be called social animals since they prefer living in small family groups. Zebras are herbivorous animals and the diet consists of leaves, grass, and twigs. Zebras prefer living in groups or a herd known as ‘Zeal’. The black and white stripes are what makes them one of the most peculiar animals. The plain zebra or the normal zebra have stripes on the stomach too, but other kinds of zebras have a plain white stomach. 

10 Lines on Zebra Essay in English

  1. Zebras have stripes that make them unique.
  2. Zebras have great eyesight.
  3. Zebras belong to the Equidae family, also known as the horse family.
  4. Zebras are herbivores which means they feed on plant parts.
  5. Zebra’s main predator is lions.
  6. Zebras are mainly active at night.
  7. They mate all year round.
  8. They are mainly found in Southern Savanna and the arid plains of eastern Africa.
  9. These animals live in groups and this group is known as ‘harems’.
  10. Every zebra has a different stripe pattern making one look different from the other.

Essay for Zebra

FAQ’s on Zebra Essay

 Question 1. To which family do zebras belong?

Answer: Zebras belong to a family called Equidae.

Question 2. Why are zebras famous?

Answer: Zebras are famous for their stripes which are black and white.

Question 3. What is their primary food source?

Answer: Their primary food source is plant-based.

Tortoise Essay | Essay on Tortoise for Students and Children in English

Essay on Tortoise

Tortoise Essay: Tortoises are cold-blooded which means they like to live in a warm environment. They belong to a family of turtles and can be found in many regions. There are many species of tortoises and every species is different from one other. It is said that they can live up to many years and are known for their strong shells and slow speed. So let’s know some interesting facts about this reptile.

Long and Short Essays on Tortoise for Students and Kids in English

A long essay of 450-500 words has been provided it is useful for students in classes 7, 8, 9, and 10. For the reference of students in Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, a short essay of 100-150 words has been provided.

Essay about Tortoise

Long Essay on Tortoise 500 Words in English

Tortoise is a reptile that belongs to a family called Testudinidae. They consist of a shell that protects them from other predators. The shell is very hard to penetrate and like others in the family, they retract their head and other parts in the shell to protect themselves. Tortoises are different from one another in the matter of size and shape. There are around 49 species of tortoise that you will find all over the world like Galapagos Tortoise, Indian Star Tortoise, Red-Footed Tortoise, and many more. Tortoises are the longest living animal in the world as they can live up to 100-150 years. They are slow reptiles with an average speed of 0.2-0.5 km/h. every specie of tortoise are different in shape and size. They are known to live on the ground and when they sense any danger, they hide in their shell. Their shell is very solid and with the colour of the shell, you can tell their origin.

Talking about the diet of the tortoises, then they are herbivores in nature and their diet consists of plants, fruits, flowers and other plant-based items. They have no teeth but a beak to eat and instead of ears, they have two holes on the side of their ears to hear the surroundings. Tortoises are generally shy in nature and they tend to stay active during the day and rest at night. It is said that all tortoises are turtles but all turtles are not tortoises. The difference between them is that tortoises have round shells whereas turtles have thinner and water dynamic shells. Tortoise are believed to live longer than the turtles as tortoise can live up to 150 years. 

Tortoises spend most of their time on land and turtles spend most of the time on the water. Tortoises have both an endoskeleton and exoskeleton structure. When we see the structure of the shell properly then we will notice that the shell consists of 3 parts i.e. top carapace, the bottom plastron, and the bridges which help in connecting these parts. The scales on the carapace are known as scutes which are made of keratin. Keratin is a protein of which our fingernails are made up of. 

Tortoises which are found in the warm and hot regions have lighter shells. On the other hand, tortoises which are found in the colder region have heavy and darker shells. One of the interesting facts about the tortoise is that they empty their lungs while going into the shell as they are extremely tolerant of carbon dioxide. They have existed since 300 million years ago, which is the same duration as dinosaurs. You can tell the age of the tortoise by looking at the rings present at their scutes. They are cold-blooded which means they like a warm environment. The shell of the tortoise is hard but sensitive also they can feel every touch, rub, and scratch on their shells. The female tortoise can lay eggs even with the male tortoise. 

Short Essay on Tortoise 150 words in English

Tortoise is considered to be a symbol of Hermes, an ancient Greek god. They are known for their shy nature and belong to a family called Testudinidae. It is believed that all tortoises are turtles but all turtles are not tortoises. The main difference between tortoise and turtle is that turtles are mostly water-based reptiles whereas tortoises spend most of their time on the ground. The diet of the tortoises includes plant-based items like leaves, flowers, and fruits. The shell of the tortoise is very hard and it is used to protect itself from other predators. The hearing ability of the tortoises is very sharp as they can hear far off and low sounds too. They like to spend their time in a warm environment as they are cold-blooded. Tortoises listen to the sounds of their surroundings through the two holes that are present on the side of their skull. 

10 Lines on Tortoise Essay in English

  1. Tortoise belongs to a family called Testudinidae.
  2. They are found in many continents except Australia and Antarctica. 
  3. There are around 49 species of tortoise with different shapes and sizes. 
  4. The shells of tortoises were used by the ancient Chinese people as oracle bones.  
  5. Tortoise is a symbol of Hermes, an ancient Greek god. 
  6. The top shell of the tortoise is very hard and solid which protects them from predators. 
  7. Tortoises have a beak and two small holes on the side of the head which helps them to hear. 
  8. The shell of the tortoise is covered with scutes which are made of keratin. 
  9. Tortoises are herbivores in nature.
  10. A tortoise can live up to 150 years. 

Essay for Tortoise

FAQ’s on Tortoise Essay

Question 1: How many species of tortoises are there in the world?

Answer: There are around 49 species of tortoises present in the world. 

Question 2: Tortoises belong to which family?

Answer: Tortoises belong to a family called Testudinidae of the order Testudines. 

Question 3: What is the diet of Tortoise?

Answer: The diet of tortoises consists of fruits, leaves, and flowers.

Spiderman Essay | Essay on Spiderman for Students and Children in English

Essay on Spiderman

Spiderman Essay: Spiderman is a fictional character who became very famous among children and also in teenagers. He first appeared in the Amazing Comics in August 1962. He was introduced by Stan Lee in Marvel Comics. Since then, he appeared in many movies and video games and is still a favourite among many kids and adults. The story of Spiderman revolves around a boy Peter Parker who got bitten by a radioactive spider which gives him a superpower and a will to fight against the crimes in New York City. So let’s know more about the character 

Long and Short Essays on Spiderman for Students and Kids in English

A long essay of 450-500 words has been provided it is useful for students in classes 7, 8, 9, and 10. For the reference of students in Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, a short essay of 100-150 words has been provided.

Essay about Spiderman

Long Essay on Spiderman 500 Words in English

Spiderman is one of the famous cartoon characters who is liked by everyone. It is a fictional character that was introduced by a comic artist known as Stan Lee in the year 1962. He first appeared in the Amazing comics and then he got praised and loved by children so much that they started his personalised comic series. The story of spiderman revolves around a boy named Peter Parker. He is a college student who also works in a media house that publishes newspaper as a photographer. The name of the company is Daily Bugle which is owned by J. Johan Jameson. 

The parents of Peter Parker died in an accident which makes him stay and grow up with his uncle and aunt. His uncle’s name was Ben Parker and his Aunt’s name was May parker. Peter Parker got his superpowers from a radioactive spider as one day, a radioactive spider bit him and changed his DNA. As a result of a change in DNA, he got superpowers such as super strength, able to climb on the wall like a spider, can throw and swing on webs, sharp senses as he can now sense the danger around him. 

One day, his uncle got killed by a thief whom he spares. Then at that moment, he decided to use his powers to fight crime and save others in need. To hide his identity, he made a suit which was red and blue in colour and had a spider symbol in the middle. He then starts catching thieves and criminals for the police but the police would only call him a vigilante. Then he faces and defeats many villains like doctor octopus, rhino, venom, vulture, and many more. The main villain in the Spiderman series was a company known as Oscorp Industries. Peter Parker’s father Richard Parker worked as a scientist in the same company. Spiderman got many allies like a black cat, spider woman, and many more. 

Apart from being a super hero, Peter Parker is a brilliant student in his class and also likes to build tech for his suit. He builds web-shooters which helps to throw webs on the enemies. Parker’s girlfriend was Mary Jane Watson who was a student of the same college where Peter studied. They liked each other and ended up marrying each other. Later with all the good work, Peter was then recruited by the Avengers, a team of superheroes to stop the attacks of aliens. 

The story of spiderman comics was inspirational and liked by people. Thus, they decided to make a movie on it. The first live-action cinematic movie of spiderman was released in the year 2002 which was hit and loved by everyone. Further, the director decided to make the sequels of the film and from that moment, there are so many live-action movies of spiderman. Many companies launched its merchandise and video games to attract more and more customers. From a cameo in a comic to making its franchise, this fictional character was and still is loved by everyone. 

Short Essay on Spiderman 150 words in English

The story of Spiderman is about a boy who got bit by a radioactive spider which gave him superpowers. With the death of his uncle during a robbery, he decided to use his powers to stop and prevent crime and help people. The boy’s name was Peter Parker and he works as a photographer in a media house. The superpowers of Spiderman include super strength, senses danger, throwing webs like spiders, and climbing walls. Peter Parker lives with his uncle and aunt. His uncle was killed by a thief. He lived in New York City and was known as the Friendly Neighbourhood spiderman. There is a very famous quote in Spiderman comics which is ‘With great power comes great responsibility’. With popularity, many companies started selling their merchandise and many directors came up with the idea of making movies. He is loved by everyone and by every age group. 

10 lines on Spiderman Essay in English

  1. Spiderman is a fictional character of Marvel Comics created by Stan Lee. 
  2. It first appeared in August 1962 in Amazing Fantasy comics.
  3. The story revolves around a boy who got bit by a radioactive spider which gives him a superpower. 
  4. His superpower was to climb like a spider and swing through webs and super strength.
  5. A famous quote from the Spiderman comics is ‘with great power comes great responsibilities’.
  6. Many villains that appeared in the Spiderman comics like the Vulture, Venom, and Kingpin. 
  7. The original name of Spiderman is Peter Richard Parker. 
  8. He lives with his uncle and aunt. 
  9. He lives in New York and works as a photographer in a company called Daily Bugle.
  10. Spiderman later joined other heroic team known as The Avengers. 

Essay for Spiderman

FAQ’s on Spiderman essay

Question 1: How did Peter Parker become Spiderman?

Answer: Peter Parker was bit by a radioactive spider that gave him superpowers.

Question 2: What is the profession of Peter Parker? 

Answer: The profession of Peter Parker is a Photographer at Daily Bugle.

Question 3: Where did Richard Parker used to work?

Answer: Richard Parker was a scientist in the Oscorp industries. 

India Pakistan War 1971 | History, Results, Facts, Awards and Movies of India Pakistan War 1971

India Pakistan War of 1971

India Pakistan War 1971: From the Partition of British ruled India in 1947, and following the creation of the dominions of Pakistan and India, both of the countries have been tangled up in a large number of conflicts, military standoffs and wars.

A long-running dispute, especially over Kashmir and cross-border terrorism, has been the major reason for disagreement. Only except for the India Pakistan War 1971, which occurred due to conflicts starting from the Bangladesh Liberation War in Bangladesh (previously known as East Pakistan).

Want to know how many wars and conflicts took place in History and changed the world? Check out this available List of Wars and Battles.

The India Pakistan War 1971 was a military conflict between Mitro Bahini forces of India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in Bangladesh or East Pakistan. The fight started with Operation Chengiz Khan’s preemptive attack through the air on 11 Indian air stations that directed to the commencement of conflicts with Pakistan and India entry to the war of Independence in East Pakistan on the side of Bengali Nationalist forces.

When Did The War Between India And Pakistan Of 1971 Take Place?

The war between India and Pakistan, 1971, also known as the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 took place in 1971 from 3 December 1971 to 16 December 1971.

India Pakistan War 1971 Facts

Where Did The Indian Pakistan War Of 1971 Occur?

The Indo-Pakistan conflict of 1971 occurred in the India and East Pakistan border, the Eastern front including Pasha enclaves and Bay of Bengal and the Western front, including the LoC, zero points, and the Indian Arabian Ocean.

Who Won the India Pakistan war 1971?

Well-known and studied as the shortest war in History, the thirteen-day long India Pakistan war 1971 ended with a decisive victory for the Indian Army. The end of the war led to the creation of Bangladesh. The East Pakistan military command’s surrender was seen in the Eastern front and in the Western front unilateral ceasefire marked the end of the war.

How Many Indian Soldiers Died In The India Pakistan War 1971?

Although India won the war decisively, which led to Pakistan’s splitting in two parts and Bangladesh’s creation occurred. However, the victory came with a huge loss for India as almost 3900 Indian soldiers were slaughtered.

Nearly 10,000 soldiers were injured with many of them left to ache from lifelong disabilities. But, Pakistan did suffer more with almost 8000 killed soldiers and 25000 wounded soldiers.

Who Supported India in India Pakistan war 1971?

Although India did not have any diplomatic ties with Israel but New Delhi with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s leadership, secretly sought and got arms from Tel Aviv when they were preparing to go to war with Pakistan in 1971.

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi conducted herself with extraordinary restraint and patience due to which India won the battle and Bangladesh was formed comprising over 60% of Pakistan’s population. The Indian forces were assisted and supported by the Mukti Bahini, a Bengali guerrilla resistance organization fighting the Pakistani troops throughout the war.

India Pakistan War 1971 Movies

What is the History of the India Pakistan War 1971?

Here is all the background you need to know about the India Pakistan war 1971. The battle took place in the setting of tensions between Pakistan previously known as West Pakistan and East Pakistan mostly the Bengali majority, which was nearer to India than Pakistan.

The political tensions between East Bengal and West Pakistan were caused due to the creation of Pakistan due to India’s partition by the British in 1947, the famous language movement in 1950, the mass killings in East Bengal in1964 and also the mass protests in 1969.

The Pakistan Army led by Lieutenant General Tikka Khan, on 25 March 1971, who later went on to become the first COAS of Pakistan, launched Operation Searchlight to repress the rebellion in East Pakistan. The Pakistan Army reportedly committed vast human rights defilements during this operation.

The conflicts between Pakistan and India initially began on 3 December 1971, when the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), set in motion pre-emotive airstrikes on 11 of Indian Airforce. Addressing the nation, the same day in evening, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi called the air attacks a “declaration of war against India”.

What is the Code Name Assigned To The Preemptive Air Strike Carried Out By The Pakistan Air Force?

The code name assigned to the preemptive air strike carried out by the Pakistan Air Force is Operation Chengiz Khan, and 11 Indian Air Force airfields were the main targets of this operation.

What are the Names Of The Targeted Indian Airbases Which Were Attacked By The Pakistan Air Force?

The targets of the Pakistan Air Forces’ Air strikes were the Airbasees of Agra, Amritsar, Ambala, Awantipur, Halwara, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Bhuj, Pathankot, Jaiselmer, Uttarlai and Srinagar and also the air defence radars present in Amritsar and Faridkot.

When is the Indian Navy Day Celebrated?

The India Pakistan war 1971 is also known for the Indian Navy’s daring assault and to commemorate this successful operation, India observes 4 December as Navy Day.

Why is the Indian Navy Day Celebrated?

The Indian Navy launched a daring assault, with code name Operation Trident, on Pakistan’s financial hub, Karachi, which was also the Pakistan Navy force’s headquarters. During this operation, the Indian Navy sank four Pakistani vessels including the well-known PNS Khaibar, killing hundreds of Pakistani Navy workers.

What Were The Results Of The Surrender Of Pakistan In The India Pakistan War 1971?

Around 93000 Pakistani troops were captured as prisoners of war or PoW by the Indian Army due to the surrender. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Awami League leader, became the first President of the newly formed Bangladesh in 1972. He was also selected as the second Prime Minister of Bangladesh in 1974. He is the father of the current Bangladesh Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina although he was assassinated in 1975.

India Pakistan War 1971

What Are Some Of The Facts Of The India Pakistan War 1971?

  • The India Pakistan war 1971 was fought for only 13 days where General AA Khan Niazi, the chief of the Pakistani forces with his 93,000 soldiers gave up before India.
  • It is known as one of the biggest Indian Army’s victories over Pakistan that made the Pakistani Army helpless.
  • Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 16 December to pay respect and tribute to all of the soldiers who gave up their lives for India’s victory in the war of India Pakistan 1971.
  • Major Ian Cardozo, AVSM, SM, Gorkha Rifles was one of the wounded men who had to cut off his leg with his khukri after he stepped on a landmine. Still, he continued his service at Indian Army and became an officer of the Indian Army.

Who Is The Real Hero Of The Indian Pakistan 1971?

Several brave Indian soldiers did not care for their lives while combating with Pakistan and set an example of invincible courage. One such brave soldier has won Maha Vir Chakra’s award for his conspicuous leadership and bravery.

Who Was Known As The Razakars And What Did They Do During The Indo-Pak War Of 1971?

Members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias known as the Razakars, during the 1971 Bangladesh war for independence, raped almost between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi girls and women in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.

How Many Gallantry Awards Were Awarded To The Army Officers After The India Pakistan War 1971?

For bravery, numerous soldiers and officers from Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh were awarded their respective country’s highest gallantry award. The Indian recipients of the Gallantry award that is the Param Vir Chakra are:

  • Major Hoshiar Singh
  • Lance Naik Albert Ekka
  • Second Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal
  • Flying Officer Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon

The Pakistani recipients of the Gallantry award that is the Nishan-E-Haider are:

  • Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas
  • Sarwar Muhammad Hussain
  • Major Muhammad Akram
  • Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz
  • Major Shabir Sharif

The Bangladeshi recipients of the Gallantry award that is the Bir Shreshtho are:

  • ERA Mohammud Ruhu Amin
  • Sepoy Mostafa Kamal
  • Captain Mohiuddin Jahangir
  • Sepoy Hamidur Rahman
  • Lance Naik Munshi Abdur Rouf
  • Lance Naik Nur Mohammed Sheik
  • Flight Lieutenant Matiur Rahman


India Pakistan War 1971 Movies | List Of The Major Films And Dramas On India Pakistan War 1971

  • Hindustan Ki Kasam (1973)
  • Aakraman (1975)
  • Vijeta (1982)
  • Border (1997)
  • 1971 – Prisoners of war (2007)
  • 1971: Beyond Borders (2017)
  • Ab Tumhare Hawale Watan Sathiyon (2004)
  • 16 December (2002)
  • Deewar (2004)
  • Raazi (2018)
  • Romeo Akbar Walter (2019)
  • Bhuj: The Pride of India (upcoming)
  • Mukti: Birth of a Nation
  • The Ghazi Attack (2017)
  • PNS Ghazi

Briefly About Indo-Pak 1971 War Memorial

Aasafwala Shaheedon ki Samadhi located just seven kilometres away from Fazilka town on NH 10 (now 7) is a sacred memorial and War museum in the remembrance of the war heroes and martyrs of the India Pakistan war 1971 is managed by Shaheed ki Samadhi Committee Asafwala with the co-operation of Army and civil administration.

If you want to pay respects to martyrs, you should visit the historical place. You can pay your respect to all those war heroes who gave up their lives to defend India from Pakistan’s hostility.

How To Reach The Memorial Site Of The Indo-Pak 1971 War?

You can reach the memorial through three routes:

  • By air: The closest International airport of the memorial site of the 1971 war, Asafwala’s War Memorial is Shri Guru Ram Das International Airport, Amritsar which is almost 200 km from Fazika. Other domestic airports are Ludhiana Airport (234 km) and Bathinda Airport (90 km).
  • By Road: The nearest bus stand from the memorial site is Fazilka bus stand, approximately 6 km from the war memorial.
  • By Train: Closest railway station of the memorial site is Fazilka Railway Station, which is about 6 km from the attached War Memorial.

First Carnatic War Year (1746-1748) | All You Need To Know About First Carnatic War | Main Cause, Consequences, Content of First Carnatic War

First Carnatic War: The First Carnatic War that happened during 1746-1748 was the Indian venue of the War of the Austrian Succession and the first of Carnatic Wars’ progression that set up early British strength on the eastern shore of the Indian subcontinent.

In this contention, the British and French East India Companies competed with one another ashore for control of their particular general stores at Madras, Pondicherry, and Cuddalore. At the same time, the maritime powers of France and Britain connected each other off the coast.

Lead representative Dupleix of the French Company caught Madras. The Indian Nawab’s military which was sent against the French was uncovered totally by Dupleix. In 1748, a ceasefire was endorsed among England and France; thus Madras was gotten back to the British.

Want to know how many wars and conflicts took place in History and changed the world? Check out this available List of Wars and Battles.

The war exhibited to French, British, and Indian onlookers the great bit of leeway of European-prepared military powers over those of the neighbourhood Indian powers, and set up for the quick development of French authority in southern India under the order of French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix in the Second Carnatic War.

First Carnatic War Year | When Did The First Carnatic War Take Place?

The first Carnatic war happened took place from 1746 to 1748 between the English and French military forces.

First Carnatic War Year (1746-1748)

Where Did The First Carnatic War Occur?

The first Carnatic war occurred in the Carnatic region of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent.

Who Won The First Carnatic War?

None among the French and English forces won the first Carnatic war. Though England and France marked Aix la Chapelle’s settlement in 1748 and this manner, harmony was re-established in India also.

By the arrangement, Madras was given over to the English in return of Lubar in America to France much against the desires of Dupleix. It was neither a conclusive war, nor it achieved any adjustment in the regional assets of one or the other party. However, it was significant in some different regards.

What Was The Main Cause Of The First Carnatic War?

The genuine reason for the war was the start of Austrian progression in 1740 in Europe in which England and France wound up in inverse camps. When the war started in Europe, the English and the French organisations sued for harmony in India and mentioned their respective home governments likewise.

The French government concurred yet the British government paid no notice to the solicitation of its organisation. It dispatched a maritime armada with the end goal of crushing the French exchange India.

The armada was prevailing with regards to devastating some French boats in the Indian sea. One of the pulverised boats had a place with Dupleix, the French organisation’s legislative leader who was maddened and chosen to retaliate the English. The primary Carnatic war, accordingly, began in 1746.

First Carnatic War Main Cause

Briefly Explain The Role Of The War Of Austrian Succession In The First Carnatic War?

Somewhere in the range of 1740 and 1748, a large portion of Europe’s extraordinary forces were associated with a contention brought about by the topic of Maria Theresa’s progression to the Austrian Habsburg crown.

The war included the entirety of Europe, with France, Prussia, Spain, Bavaria and Saxony displayed against Austria and Britain. The initial two wars, the First Silesian War (1740–42) and the Second Silesian War (1744–45) revolved around Austria and Prussia.

The third war was fixated on the proceeded with France and Britain’s struggle over pioneer assets in India and North America. During the war, British soldiers demonstrated their value as warriors.

What Was The Content Of The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle?

The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, here and there called the Treaty of Aachen, finished the War of the Austrian Succession, following a congress gathered on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City Aachen.

The deal generally neglected to determine the issues that caused the war, while many signatories were discontent with the terms. Maria Theresa, who was the only lady ruler of the Habsburg dominions, hated Austria’s avoidance from the discussions and criticised Britain for compelling her to acknowledge concessions. Simultaneously, British legislators felt they had gotten little advantage for the monetary sponsorships paid to her.

Describe the French Royal Navy that Was Used for The First Carnatic War?

The French maritime group in the East Indies during the war included Leader, Bertrand-François Mahé, Comte de La Bourdonnais and a unique naval army.

  • Achille (74 firearms, just 70 weapons on-transport)
  • Duc d’Orléans (56 firearms, just 36 weapons on-transport)
  • Whiskey (56 firearms, just 34 weapons on-transport)
  • Neptune (54 firearms, just 34 weapons on-transport)
  • Phoenix (54 firearms, just 34 weapons on-transport)
  • Sainte-Louis (44 firearms, just 30 weapons on-transport)
  • Lys (40 firearms, just 28 weapons on-transport)
  • Insulaire (30 firearms, just 26 weapons on-transport)

First Carnatic War Content

What Naval Weapons And Ships Did The British Royal Navy Use For The First Carnatic War?

The British maritime group in the East Indies during the war included Leader, Rear-chief of naval operations of the Red Thomas Griffin and,

  • HMS Princess Mary (60 firearms)
  • HMS Medway (60 weapons)
  • HMS Exeter (60 weapons)
  • HMS York (60 firearms)
  • HMS Winchester (50 firearms)
  • HMS Harwich (50 firearms)
  • HMS Preston (50 weapons)
  • HMS Eltham (40 weapons)
  • HMS Pearl (40 firearms)
  • HMS Medway’s Prize (40 weapons)
  • HMS Lively (20 firearms)

Who Was Anwaruddin Khan, And How Was He Related To The First Carnatic War?

Anwaruddin Khan (1672 – 3 August 1749), otherwise called Muhammad Anwaruddin, was the first Nawab of Arcot of the subsequent Dynasty. He was a significant figure during the initial two Carnatic Wars.

In 1746, the French and the English battled to accomplish matchless quality over India in the First Carnatic War. The Carnatic area turned into the field of their activity.

In 1746, the French caught the British post at Madras, and undermined yet couldn’t take that at Cuddalore. Muhammad Anwaruddin hosted cautioned the two gatherings against assaulting one another. Yet, the French had dismissed his admonition, and Joseph François Dupleix, the French lead representative general, had pacified him by offering him Madras.

Mention a Casualty Caused by the First Carnatic War on India?

Much of the time, the European soldiers crushed Dravidian sanctuaries all through South India and executed gigantic slaughters of Dravidians that are regular folks where the European troopers ordinarily killed countless Dravidians in Kerala just as in South India. During a slaughter of Indian regular people, the British Raj warriors executed 1,000,000 Dravidians in Tamil Nadu alone during regular citizens’ slaughter.

What Were The Consequences Of The First Carnatic War?

England and France marked the deal of Aix la Chapelle in 1748 and in this way, harmony was re-established in India. By the settlement, Madras was given over to the English in return of Lubar in America to France much against the desires of Dupleix. Consequently finished the main Carnatic battle between the English and the French.

It was neither a conclusive war, nor it achieved any adjustment in the regional assets of one or the other party. However, it was significant in some different regards. The English and the French came to know the geological highlights of the regions stretching out over almost 100 miles around their force’s focuses.

It additionally presented to them the military shortcoming of the Indian rulers. It brought into the centre the significance of the Navy as a viable instrument of war. This Carnatic war also stirred the English and French organisations’ avarice for regional development in India. Dodwell remarked: “It set up for the analyses of Dupleix and achievement of Clive.”

What Was The Other Cause Of The First Carnatic War?

Dupleix looked for the help of La Bourdonnais, the French maritime leader at Mauritius. La Bourdonnais assaulted Madras and caught it. Notwithstanding, wouldn’t surrender Madras to Dupleix, accepting rupees 60,000 as pay off from the English lead representative and returned.

Dupleix at that point assaulted Madras and caught it. The English, in edginess, looked for assurance from Anwar-ud-commotion, the Nawab of Karnataka. The Nawab stayed quiet till he left guaranteed that Dupleix would give him share in the goods. However, when he understood that Dupleix was not going to oblige him, he despatched a military under his child’s order to catch Madras.

The Nawab’s military met the French unexpectedly at St. Thome on the banks of the stream Adyar and was steered. Dupleix endeavored to catch the English post of St. David yet flopped even following an attack of eighteen months. In August 1748, an English armada attacked Pondicherry however neglected to catch it.

First Carnatic War on India

Why Is The Name Of The War Written as “Carnatic”?

The war was fought in the southern region of the Indian subcontinent. The main battle area of the war is considered to be Karnataka, a state of India. From the name of the state Karnataka, the war’s name was written as “Carnatic.”

Name a Colony of France in India?

Everyone thinks about the most-adored French state of India, Pondicherry. Affectionately called Pondy, the white town is notable for its seashores, the yellow structures, Auroville, and substantially more, pulled in vacationers from India and across the globe since an extremely prolonged stretch of time.

Explain in Short About The Events Of The First Carnatic War?

Lead representative Dupleix of the French Company caught Madras. The Indian Nawab’s military which was sent against the French was uncovered totally by Dupleix. In 1748, a ceasefire was endorsed among England and France; thus Madras was gotten back to the British.

Describe the Chronological Order Of The First Carnatic War?

  • 1746 Battle of Negapatam (First ) drawn fight triumph
  • 1746 Siege of Madras (First ) French triumph
  • 1748 Siege of Pondicherry (First ) French triumph

1967 India China War | Awards, Details, Importance and Casualties of India China War

1967 India China War

1967 India China War: In the year 1967, India fought a battle against China in order to restore its self-respect and protect its land. The Nathu La and Cho La pass battles of 1967 – also referred to as the Sino-Indian War – changed Indo-China political dynamics forever.

The war consisted of a number of border clashes between India and China along the border of the Himalayan Kingdom of Sikkim then followed by an Indian protectorate. The incidents of 1967 marked the last casualties on both sides – India and China – in the Sikkim Sector.

Independent sources have revealed that India has achieved ‘decisive tactical advantage’ and had managed to hold its own against the Chinese forces. Many PLA fortifications in Nathu La – where the Indian troops drove back the attacking Chinese forces – were known to be destroyed. The competition for controlling the Chumbi Valley is known as a major cause for the heightening of tension in these incidents.

Want to know how many wars and conflicts took place in History and changed the world? Check out this available List of Wars and Battles.

Observers have stated that these clashes indicated a decline of ‘claim strength’ in China’s decision for initiating the use of force against India. It also noted that India was highly pleased with its troops’ combat performance in the Nathu La clashes. It was seen as a sign of striking improvement since their defeat in the 1962 Indo-China War.

1967 India China War | When Did The 1967 India China War Take Place?

The Nathu La clashes began on September 11th, 1967 when the PLA – People’s Liberation Army – launched an attack on the Indian posts at Nathu La. It lasted till September 15th, 1967. In October of 1967, another military duel occurred at Cho La and ended on that same day.

India China War

Who Won The India China War Of 1967?

India has won the India China War of 1967. A ceasefire was arranged for ending the Nathu La clashes, and the Chinese forces were withdrawn from Cho La.

Where Did The 1967 India China War Take Place?

The last battle between China and India took place in September 1967 at Nathu La and Cho La on the border between the Kingdom of Sikkim and China. It was a fight between the two soldiers of two armies after which it escalated to artillery guns and threats of fighter jets.

How Many Casualties Were There In The 1967 Indo China War?

According to the claims made by the Chinese, the number of soldiers killed was 32 on China’s side and 65 on India’s side in Nathu La incident. Along with these 36 Indian soldiers and an ‘unknown’ number of Chinese soldiers were killed in the Cho La incident.

On the contrary, the Indian Defence Ministry’s reports stated that 88 soldiers killed and 163 soldiers wounded on India’s side, whereas 340 soldiers killed and 450 soldiers wounded on China’s side during the two incidents.

India China War Awards

What Incidents Occurred At Nathu La During The 1967 Indo China War?

During the morning of September 11th, 1967, the soldiers and the engineers of the Indian Army had started laying the fencing from Nathu La to Sebu La along the recognised border. According to an Indian account, a Chinese Political Commissioner came to the centre of the pass to an Indian Lieutenant Colonel and asked him to stop laying the wire.

Indian soldiers refused to stop as they said they had been given orders. An argument started which in no time turned into a fight. After this, the Chinese soldiers returned to their bunkers, and the Indians continued laying the wire.

Within sometime after this incident, a whistle was blown from China’s side, which was followed by medium machine gun firing against the Indian troops from the north shoulder. As there was a lack of cover in the past, initially heavy casualties were suffered by the Indian forces.

Shortly after this, the Indian troops opened artillery against the Chinese. The clashed extended throughout the day and night for the next three days with the use of machine guns, artillery and mortars. During this, the Chinese forces were ‘beat backed’ by the Indian troops.

Five days after the incidents had started; there was an arrangement for an ‘uneasy’ ceasefire. Due to the Indian troops’ advantageous positions because of their high school occupation at the Cebu La pass and Camel’s back had destroyed many Chinese bunkers in Nathu La.

On September 15th and 16th, the corpse of the fallen soldiers was exchanged.

What Incidents Occurred At Cho La During The 1967 Indo China War?

Another clash between India and China occurred on October 1st 1967 at Cho La, a few kilometres north of Nathu La, another pass on the Sikkim-Tibet border.

It has been stated by scholar van Eekelen that the Chinese troops had initiated the duel after a fight that took place between the two. This happened when the Sikkim-side of the border was infiltrated by the Chinese forces, claiming the pass and questioning its Indian occupation.

However, China had asserted that the provocations came from the Indian side. The Chinese version stated that the Indian troops had invaded the Chinese territory across the pass, making provocations against the stationed Chinese troops and opening fire.

The military duel lasted for one day during this the Chinese have driven away, which boosted the Indian morale. The Chinese troops were a force to withdraw nearly three kilometres during the clash in Cho Lo according to the Indian Maj. Gen. Sheru Thapliyal.

India China War Details

Have There Been Any Casualties Between India And China Since The War Of 1967?

The incidents of 1967 marked the last incidents of casualties on India and China’s sides in the Sikkim sector. The last death that occurred in any sector of the India China border was in the year 1975 at Tulung La. This incident took place by accident when two patrols got lost in the fog. So in spite of the close parallels, the border has remained largely tranquil since then.

Name The Commanders And Leaders On Both The Sides During The India China War Of 1967

Commanders and leaders on India’s side were:

  • President S. Radhakrishnan
  • Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi
  • Chief of Army Staff, Gen. P. P. Kumaramangalam
  • Lt. Gen. Jagjit Singh Aurora
  • Maj. Gen. Sagat Singh
  • Brig. Rai Singh Yadav

Commanders and leaders on China’s side were:

  • Chairman of the CPC or CMC, Mao Zedong
  • Deputy commander of the Tibet Military District, Maj. Gen. Wang Chenghan
  • Maj. Gen. Zhiquan

What Was The Aftermath Of The 1967 India China War?

The India China border has remained calm and peaceful after the occurrence of these incidents until the China India skirmishes 2020.

In the year 1975, Sikkim became an Indian state, after a referendum that resulted in overwhelming support on the removal of monarchy and full merger with India. China did not recognise the Indian annexation of Sikkim during the time. China, in the year 2003, indirectly recognised Sikkim as an Indian state.

This happened on the agreement when India accepted that the Tibet Autonomous Region was a part of China even though India has done so back in the year 1953.

Wen Jiabao, Chinese Prime Minister in 2005, said that Sikkim is no longer a problem between China and India.

India China War Casualities

What Were Some Major Military Awards Awarded After The India China 1967 War?

Some major awards that were given were:

Maha Vir Chakra

  • Brigadier Rai Singh Yadav – 2nd Grenadiers (unit), Nathu La, Sikkim, India (place of action)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Mahatam Singh – 10 JAK Rifles (unit), Cho La, Sikkim, India, (place of action)
  • Major Harbhajan Singh – 18 Rajput (unit), Nathu La, Sikkim, India (place of action)

Vir Chakra

  • Captain Prithi Singh Dagar – 2nd Grenadiers (unit), Nathu La, Sikkim, India (place of action)
  • Havaldar Lakshmi Chand – 2nd Grenadiers (unit), Nathu La, Sikkim, India (place of action)
  • Sepoy Gokal Singh – 18th Rajput (unit), Nathu La, Sikkim, India (place of action)

What Is The Importance Of The Nathu La Pass?

The Nathu La pass is located on the watershed serving as a natural boundary and connecting Sikkim with the Chinese Tibet Autonomous Region. The Nathu La pass is of utmost importance for the Indian Army as it gives the full tactical advantage of fire and observation.

After the 1962 war, when China defeated India, all forms of trade through this route were stopped. The trading was reopened in 2006 after which the Prime Minister had visited China.

Describe In Detail Incidents That Led To The India China War Of 1967

  • The clash eventually led to the death of 88 Indian soldiers. More than 300 Chinese soldiers lost their lives.
  • The Indian side had decided on fencing the border with barbed wire layers. Working on the barbed wires started on August 20th, 1967.
  • On August 23rd, around 75 Chinese soldiers in battle dress, carrying rifles, advanced towards the Nathu La.
  • The Political Commissar war identifiable due to the red patch on his cap and he was the only one who could speak a little English.
  • The barbed wires were upgraded to concertina coil on September 5th.
  • The Commanding Officer Lt. Colonel Rai Singh, had an argument with the Political Commissar after which work stopped.
  • Work was resumed on September 7th.
  • This action provoked 100 Chinese soldiers to rush up and the fight started. On being beaten down by the Jats, the Chinese soldiers resorted to stone-pelting and Indians responded kindly.

What Are Some Other Wars That Occurred Between India And China?

The other war that occurred between India and China is the Indo-China war of 1962. China has defeated India and took control of Aksai Chin. The battle lasted for one month and one day. Followed by the 1962 Indian China war, there was tension running along with the Himalayan border share by China and India.

Kalinga War Date and Year | All You Need To Know About Kalinga Battle | Kalinga War Movies | Facts and History of Kalinga Battle

Kalinga War

Kalinga War: Odisha History has a significant Sheet Anchor that is called Kalinga War. This war states the end of empire-building under Maurya King Ashoka. It is the mark of the deadliest war ever fought in India, which took over 3,00,000 lives. It is a sign of conflict between the Kalinga Kingdom and the Maurya Empire under the rule of Ashoka. Kalinga was a feudal kingdom spread across the east coast of India, which took Odisha state.

Want to know how many wars and conflicts took place in History and changed the world? Check out this available List of Wars and Battles.

Under the rule of Ashoka, this was the major war fought after he gained power over the throne. It is a story of Dhauli hills on the banks of river Daya. In those times, Kalinga was an independent state which did not have any king to rule over. After this war took place, the process of military conquests and empire building came to an end. As a result, it brought ruler Ashoka to adopt Buddhism in the end.

  • When did the Kalinga War take place?
  • Where did the Kalinga War take place?
  • Who took over Kalinga?
  • How many lives did it cost in the Kalinga War?
  • Why did the Mauryan Empire want to take over Kalinga?
  • A detailed history of Kalinga
  • When Ashoka thought of the right time to fight for Kalinga?
  • What were the after-results of the Kalinga Battle?
  • Why did Ashoka adopt a peaceful end to the Maurya Empire?
  • Give some important facts about the Kalinga War.

When did the Kalinga War take place?

The battle of Kalinga was fought between an independent state Kalinga and the Maurya Empire, back in 261 BCE on the banks of the Daya River and northern parts of Andhra Pradesh. The reason why rulers wanted to take over Kalinga was good trade routes with Southeast Asia. But none knows it would take a huge number of lives and cause big destruction for Kalinga.

Kalinga War - Between Kalinga and Maurya Empire

Where Did the Kalinga War Take Place?

The deadliest war in India- Kalinga War, was fought between Maurya Empire and the independent state Kalinga on Dhauli Hills. Dhauli Hills located on the banks of river Dhaka, which is now in Odisha and the northern parts of Andhra Pradesh.

Who Won the Kalinga Battle?

After his grandfather’s death, Ashoka aimed to win over Kalinga after successfully establishing his throne. Thus Ashoka won this war in 261 BC after he completed eight years of rule. However, the final results lead to a big change in Ashoka’s life. This bloodiest war of Kalinga was fought in the Indian subcontinent which brought devastating consequences for India.

How Many People Cost Their Lives In The Deadliest Kalinga Battle?

Kalinga is one of the largest and deadliest wars that took place within India. It has written a great Odisha history in wars. Kalinga was an Independent state in India during Maurya times. However, Kalinga was a strategy for his empire. Hence it cost more than 3,00,000 lives in the battle. 1,50,000 lives from Ashoka’s empire and the same number from the people of Kalinga.

Why did Ashoka Fight To Win Over Kalinga?

Ashoka’s grandfather Chandragupta Maurya always aimed to win over Kalinga, which was an independent state in India. It was because everyone wanted to take over for political and economic reasons. Thus as soon as Ashoka felt he had successfully established his throne, he planned to fight against Kalinga.

Ashoka Kalinga War

Explain Complete History Of The Kalinga Battle?

Kalinga falls as the most prosperous region in India. The people were highly skilled and wanted to live a peaceful life independently. However, this was the only reason why different rulers wanted to take over the state. Ashoka’s grandfather Chandragupta Maurya was planning to rule over Kalinga for good business trade and other political reasons.

Today Kalinga has set a great historical landmark for Odisha state, leaving some permanent legacies. Before this, Kalinga was under the rule of the Nanda empire till 321 BCE. Later, Chandragupta tried to take over the area but failed. Hence Ashoka decided to win over Kalinga against state rule and establish his Mauryan empire. He thought Kalinga being independent could be a threat to the Mauryan empire. However, as a consequence, Ashoka had to adopt Buddhism to live his rest of the life peacefully and planned not to extend his empire further. He thought it was his mistake that has led to the destruction of lakhs of lives.

When Did Ashoka Fight the Kalinga War?

The 8th year of coronation for Ashoka is 261 BC when he has won over Kalinga. People of the state were freedom lovers and stood against Mauryans but could not resist them to take over.

What Were The Consequences After The War Ended?

Ashoka finally took over Kalinga state in 261 BC and fulfilled his grandfather Chandragupta Maurya’s desire to conquer the state. However, as a result, the war cost 3,00,000 lives, half from Ashoka’s empire and an equal number from the people. Thus it took a tremendous toll on lives and caused huge destruction to the property. This destruction did not even leave a single person to live their lives peacefully. Hence stern heart Ashoka’s heart melted over this loss. Eventually, he adopted Buddhism and thought not to extend his empire and peacefully live the rest of his life.

History of Kalinga War

What Made Ashoka Adopt Peaceful Life After The Kalinga War?

At the site of Dhauli, on the banks of the Daka river, the Kalinga war took place. The war is unforgettable for the Indian history that brought a bloody outcome. Ashoka thought that he was the reason for such destruction in the state. The entire Daka turned red with the blood of the dead ones. Thus, as a result, Ashoka’s heart melted for the place, and he finally turned in Dhamma and path. Mauryans administration was run under governance.

Also, people believe that after the war, a woman came to Ashoka saying that it took her father, son, and husband from her. She has no more reasons to live now. Those words took Ashoka’s mind and he prepared himself to live peacefully for the rest of his life.

What are the Different Facts About the Kalinga War?

  • In 261 BC, the final Kalinga War was fought by Ashoka against the independent state Kalinga state.
  • Today Kalinga state is the Odisha state of India.
  • Bindusara, the father of Ashoka, got defeated many times while conquering Kalinga.
  • It was the 8th year of the reign of Ashoka when the war finally ended.
  • During the time of war, the owner of state Kalinga was Raja Anantha Padmanabhan.
  • Raja Anantha Padmanabhan disagreed with the complete proposal of Kalinga in the hands of the Mauryan Empire. Thus Ashoka sent his big army to Kalinga and win over it.
  • The brave people of Kalinga loved to live an independent and peaceful life. Thus they fiercely fought against the Mauryan Empire army.
  • The war eventually cost 3,00,000 lives, half from Ashoka’s empire and a half from Kalinga state.
  • After the Kalinga War, the results were very fierce such that River Daya turned completely red with the bloodshed of lakhs of people.
  • The after-results of the Kalinga war melted the heart of Ashoka. Eventually, he took over the place and lived the next 40 years peacefully without expanding his empire.
  • Also, it is said that a woman from Kalinga after the war came to Ashoka for taking his husband’s, father’s, and son’s life. Thus she has no reason to live then. These words took Ashoka’s mind to peace and kindness. He started believing in Ahimsa.
  • Ashoka finally turned his mind and ended expanding his military.
  • Ashoka adopted Buddhism and later adopted life for Ahimsa and Dharma-Vijay.
  • After that, Ashoka led his next 40 years and tried to spread non-violence to other parts including Srilanka, Greece,  Macedonia, and Syria.

Major Kalinga War Movies

List of Movies and Dramas on Kalinga War

There are two movies made for memorizing the battle of Kalinga. These are:

  • Ashoka the Great
  • Kalinga War