Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity | Uses, Importance, Types, Pros and Cons of Electricity

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity: Electricity is secondary energy converted from other primary sources of energy such as coal, natural gases, oil, nuclear power, and so on. It is a type of power or energy that we use in our daily life to make heat, light, and power to use different kinds of machines, etc. Electricity is mainly generated by three sources which are fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and petroleum), nuclear energy, and renewable sources of energy. However, nuclear power is the major factor in electricity production which is 1.5 to 2 times more than natural gas and coal units, and 2.5 to 3.5 times more reliable than wind and solar plants.

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What is Electricity? What are the Advantages And Disadvantages of Electricity?

Electricity is defined as the power of an electric charge and mention a few examples of electricity are lightning, the force that lights the bulb, the heat that helps in cooking, etc. In simple words, electricity is nothing but a form of energy that could be generated from many sources and in several ways which provides power to different devices to heat and create light, etc.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity

Importance of Electricity

Humans have known about the presence of electricity since ancient times but how to harness it was only made more clear after the experiments done by Benjamin Franklin and Michael Faraday using magnets and copper wire coils. So it is important to understand the importance of electricity which is mentioned below:

  • Electricity helps to keep the people warm in winters: In certain places where the temperature is significantly low it becomes a matter of life and death so here comes the electricity which is quite helpful. Before electricity people had to depend upon layers of clothes, fireplaces, and wood-burning stoves which becomes difficult to use when working full-time jobs but now with the help of electricity you can warm your room with just the turn of a dial.
  • Much needed to cook and store food: Electricity is the fuel which is mainly needed for various devices used to prepare and store food. In earlier days people used burning wood and coals to cook food which needed a lot of monitoring. Modern devices like Microwave, ovens, and inductions help to cook food and there are other devices like refrigerators and freezers which has transformed how people store food.
  • Electricity is very essential in Medical Care: Healthcare facilities like clinics depend on reliable electricity. Lighting, security systems, air conditioning, electronic health records, and medical equipment all need energy which is provided by electricity. Hospitals need 24 by 7 supply of electricity because healthcare facilities can’t suspend their operations; their outages issues can lead to the death of patients. Whenever outages happen, hospitals and nursing homes usually have to vacate, which arrives with its risks.
  • Electricity fuels the devices we use in our daily life: We use different kinds of devices like laptops, cellphones, televisions, etc which are used for the purpose of entertaining, communicating, working, and navigating. We cannot imagine our life without these modern devices. But without electricity, we cannot power these devices.

Uses of Electricity

  • Home Uses of electricity: Electricity is used for many purposes like lighting, cooking, heating water, cleaning, and entertainment. These are the basic uses of electricity in a household but there are many more uses. Its use includes watching TV, washing clothes, heating, bathing, working from home on computers or laptops, and running other devices, so residential energy uses represent approximately forty percent of the total energy use worldwide.
  • Medical Uses of electricity: With the help of electricity we are able to use X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs, which led to a reduction in the death rate. Also because of electricity, we have reached treatments for many diseases.
  • In Socializing: With the help of electricity we can use different kinds of devices that help in social interactions because of which the distance between people is not that big of a concern to communicating with each other.
  • Commercial Sector: It includes heating, cooling, and lighting for buildings and commercial squares, in complement to the electricity used by companies and commercial centers in all parts of cities for computers, fax machines, printing and copying machines, elevators, and electrical drawers.

Advantages of Electricity

  • It creates Jobs: The electricity power industry is a big job creator and provider. It requires a lot of experienced employees to maintain and repair the electrical grid. That includes inspecting and fixing power lines, getting power back after an extreme weather event, and wiring residences and industries. The green energy sector is also creating lots of job options.
  • It Impacts Climate Change: The source of electricity is one of the biggest problems of our time. When comes to fossil fuels like burning or oil, cause climate change. According to data, 80% of the world’s energy in 2019 came from fossil fuels. Discovering renewable energy sources is important to stopping global warming. Some nations have been doing very sufficiently. Costa Rica produced 95% of its electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and hydropower over last four years. Sweden, which utilizes hydropower and bioenergy as its top renewable sources, aspires to achieve 100% renewable electricity by the year 2040.
  • Helps in Conveyance and Entertainment: Electricity helps in supplying easy and immediate transport to name a few fast electric trains and entertainment such as radio, televisions, and cinemas. With the help of electricity, some everyday equipment like computers and robots can be appropriately used, which helped in the evolution of human life.
  • Electricity powers Wi-Fi: A big cause why devices like cell phones and laptops are so essential these days is that they connect to the internet. The internet is essential for so numerous tasks it’s not feasible to access the internet without electricity. For dependable Wi-Fi, dependable electricity is important.

Disadvantages of Electricity

  • Not a Primary source of energy: we can generate electricity from other energy sources which are renewable instead of non-renewable sources like fossil fuels(natural gas, coal, and oil) but usually, the generation of electricity is mostly done by consuming non-renewable sources.
  • Its danger to human life: Electric current, according to its effect on a person is harmful. It is generally accepted that an electrical current of more than 50 mA is hazardous to mortal life. Because while dealing with electricity there is always a risk of being electrocuted.
  • Risk Of Faulty Wirings: It can burn our place due to flawed wirings. Electric appliances, circuits, conduits, and transmission lines present a shock risk to people: those who use them, those who work with them, and those who provide them. Short circuits and sparks also present a fire danger.
  • More Dependency: People become lazy and too dependent on gadgets such as machines, computers, and calculators.
  • Creates Imbalance: Electricity can result in pollution if it is generated by fossil fuels or nuclear energy. It can impact animal life if it is generated by hydroelectric dams or tidal power.

Comparison Table for Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity

AdvantagesDisadvantages
Hydroelectricity does not cause any pollution as there are no gas emissions or waste. Also, it is inexpensive to operateIf electricity is created using fossil fuels it can cause air pollution.
The devices operated by electricity are less noisy as compared to others.Whenever we use electric appliances there is always a danger of being electrocuted.
The transformation of the forces of water to electric energy can be up to 90% efficient.Studies show that the plant decay provoked downstream of main dams produces as many greenhouse gasses as more traditional methods of generating electricity.
Electricity can be generated from renewable energy sources. A few of the renewable sources are wind energy, hydro energy, and solar power.High investment costs are incurred while setting up electric power plants.

FAQ’s on Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity

Question 1.
Who invented Electricity?

Answer:
Benjamin Franklin is given recognition for finding electricity. In the year 1752, Benjamin Franklin performed an experiment using a kite and key on a rainy day. He desired to show the connection between lightning and electricity. So to do so he flew the kite knotted with a key during the thunderstorm.

Question 2.
What is the significance of electricity in our everyday life?

Answer:
Electricity has numerous uses in our day to day life. Electricity is utilized for lighting rooms, operating fans, and home devices like utilizing electric stoves, A/C, and more. All these provide comfort to people. In plants, immense machines are operated with the help of electricity.

Question 3.
What are the 7 sources of electricity?

Answer:
Most of the electricity is generated using steam turbines along with using fossil fuels, nuclear, biomass, geothermal, and solar thermal power. Other prominent electricity generation technologies include gas turbines, hydro turbines, wind turbines, and solar photovoltaics

Question 4.
Sources of electricity in India?

Answer:
Over 80% of India’s power needs are fulfilled by three fuels: coal, oil, and solid biomass. Coal has underpinned the development of electricity generation and industry, and stays the most considerable single fuel in the power mix.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Interview | Types, Tips, Definition, Face to Face Interview, Limitations

Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Interview

Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Interview: A personal interview is a meeting for different candidates who applied for different posts in a firm or company. In interviews, a candidate is selected under the criteria of his previous experiences, qualification and personality as well as communication skills. Many companies have their own rules and regulations which are taken into consideration while recruiting any candidate for any particular post. However, the interview should be a two-way process where the candidate, as well as the interviewer, should interact efficiently. An interviewer always searches for a candidate who can fit the position and the organization in which the candidate is being assigned. It is the foremost tool to judge the abilities of a person. When people communicate face to face with each other, it becomes easier to understand the body language and speech delivery of a person in a better way.

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What is a Personal Interview? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Personal Interview 2022?

A personal interview is a formal face-to-face interaction where there is certain decorum amongst people for job-related matters. One should look presentable and should have proper body language. One should have a firm handshake, eye contact and smile. One should feel confident and that confidence should reflect in body language. One should sit in a correct posture and avoid fidgeting with legs and hands. The candidate should not be blank at any point and should be straightforward in nature. One should answer each and every question appropriately.

Types of Personal Interviews

There are various types of personal interviews;

  • Unstructured informal interview: The unstructured informal interview is conducted to generate ideas and hypotheses about the subject being investigated. These interviews have an informal conversation about the subject and do not have any specific set of questions.
  • Structured interview: It has a completely different format and it follows the specific questionnaire and different sets of questions were being asked to candidates.
  • Depth interview: In this, one-to-one encounters take place and discussion goes on related to a structured set of issues or topics. Depth interviews are usually only successful when it is conducted by a well-trained interviewer. It also deals with research and psychoanalysis where depth knowledge is required.
  • Telephone Interview: Telephonic interviews are very common nowadays and it requires an amount of flexibility. The interviewer presents complex questions over the telephone and the candidate has to answer appropriately. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing has also begun in this era.
  • Face-to-face interview: Another common type of interview is where companies visit different universities for conducting placement and interviews. In this one should be well dressed in formals as one-to-one communication goes on.

Tips for Personal Interview

There are many tips that one should follow while attending a personal interview;

  • One should have clear objectives: One should have clear objectives related to office work and should be focused to meet the deadlines and these qualities should reflect in the personal interview. Candidates should know the purpose of the interview and should be prepared for complex questions.
  • One should stay confident: Confidence is the most crucial thing to crack any personal interview, one should feel and stay confident while answering any question asked by the recruiter. It helps in capturing the attention and portrays an attractive personality.
  • One should have good communication skill: Communication is the main reason why people fail to crack personal interviews, candidates should be confident and fluent to impress the interviewers. Lack of good communication represents the dull personality of the candidate.
  • One should be polite: The candidate should be well-mannered and polite in nature. Politeness should be reflected in the speech of the candidate. One should not argue and use inappropriate language.
  • One should wear formal clothes: One should not wear casual clothes. Formal shirts and pants are the best for attending any interview and hence this reflects a good personality. Shoes should be also clean and polished.

Advantages of Personal Interview

There are many advantages of a personal interview;

  • Scope to deal with complex questions: A complex questionnaire can be asked at any point in the interview session. One should know how to deal with certain complex questions.
  • Flexibility: The interview can probe for more specific answers and can repeat as well as clarify a question.
  • Spontaneity: Candidates answer spontaneously and gain the ability to deal with counter questions asked by the interviewer.
  • Completeness: In this interviewer ensure that all the questions have to be answered by the candidates, so there is less chance for non-response.

Disadvantages of Personal Interview

They are;

  • Interviewer bias: Sometimes interviewers biasedly select candidates although interviewers are instructed to remain objective and avoid asking about personal views, they nevertheless often give hints that influence the candidate’s answers.
  • Expensive: Interview studies are high cost as this includes training, selecting, paying charges, travel expenses, accommodation and time taking process.
  • Reluctant behaviour of respondents: Some candidates are unwilling to communicate with strangers and also reluctant to provide confidential information.
  • Time-consuming: It is the most time-consuming process of selecting a candidate out of so many candidates.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Interview

Comparison Table for Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Interview

They are;

Advantages of Personal InterviewDisadvantages of Personal Interview
Flexibility is the major advantage of the interview.This process is more time-consuming for accurate screening of the candidates.
It allows them to deal with complex questions and makes a person spontaneous with thoughts and answers.The biased decisions are being taken by interviewers.
One can become better observant.Interview studies are expensive.
Personal interviews help with the proper screening of the candidates required in a particular field.Sometimes candidates are reluctant to answer confidently.

FAQ’s on Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Interview

Question 1.
How to prepare for personal interviews?

Answer:
One should stay confident, give a frank opinion, should have strong objectives, one should have sound knowledge about the applied field or post.

Question 2.
What is a personal interview?

Answer:
A personal interview is a formal communication with the candidates who have applied for certain posts and jobs. Interviewers also visit universities to appoint candidates for various jobs in different departments.

Question 3.
Write two tips to crack personal interviews.

Answer:
Two tips to crack personal interviews are: One should be presentable and wear formal and clean clothes, Candidate’s behaviour should be polite and spontaneous.

Question 4.
What are the types of personal interviews?

Answer:
There are many types of personal interviews: Telephone interviews, Face to face interviews, Video calling interviews and so on.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Queue | What is Queue? Benefits and Limitations, Pros and Cons of Queue

Advantages and Disadvantages of Queue: In the data structure, a linear structure is used to perform different operations by collecting all the data in a particular order. This is done by the Queue which contains the data and operates by both the open ends so that the data can be inserted from one end and removed the data from the other end. A queue is a structure that includes files, lists, arrays, trees, and tables. Thus it follows the rule of first in first out (FIFO) means the data which is inserted first will be removed from the queue first. Usually, it is used when the application is made for the use of multiple users that can be easily accessed by them. For example, we make a song playlist in which we add songs and they play in the order as it is selected.

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What is Queue? Advantages and Disadvantages of Queue 2022

A Queue in the data structure to perform operations by collecting data in a particular order so that the data can be used in the sequence of first in first out(FIFO). The queue is open at both ends unlike stacks where the data is stored and used in the sequence of lastly inserted will be accessed for performing any task. Thus in the queue, if any data is entered at the end it can only be used when all the other data is used and removed to use the last entered data. There are many real-life examples of the queue like going for taking a ticket then the first person in the queue will get the ticket first one more real-life example is the one-way road where vehicles that enter first go first.

In the queue, the data cannot be accessed from their places but it can be operated from the two endpoints which are data pointers front and rear.  From the rear the data is inserted and then operated in a queue then from the front it is removed from the memory after utilization is done.

Below are the basic operations that must be understood before utilizing data in the queue are;

  • Enqueue() – it is to add or insert data to the queue.
  • Dequeue() – it is for removing or deleting data from the queue.
  • Peek() –  In this, any element is acquired in the front node without deleting it.
  • isFull() – This is checks if queue is full.
  • isNull() – It checks if the queue is empty.

In a queue when the data is added or inserted then this process is called Enqueue and when any element is removed from the queue then it is called Dequeue. The queue is created by using Array and linked list which performs the operation in first come first serve. These have many advantages while working with much data that is needed to be processed in an ordered list. Let us see its various advantages and also disadvantages.

Advantages of Queue

A queue is a structure that includes files, lists, arrays, trees, and tables following the rule of first in first out(FIFO) means the data which is inserted first will be removed from the queue first.

Below are many advantages of the queue that is used in the data structure as follows;

  1. Managing Large data: Queue can be used well for managing a large amount of data very efficiently by using an array and linked list so that it is huge data can be operated smoothly.
  2. Implement Other Data Structure: A queue has a feature to implement other data structures like arrays, lists, pointers, stacks, etc which makes it more reliable to work with the data that are needed to be operated in ordered lists.
  3. Speed: The queue is very much fast speed which is helpful in inter-data communication that can improve any application made with the queue.
  4. Useful For Multiple Users: When we want to apply one application for many or multiple users then the queue very efficiently operates on this type of requirement.
  5. Easy to Operate: The queue is very easy to operate as it is simple to use without making the application complex and can be easily used by beginners.

Disadvantages of Queue

The queue has multiple benefits but here are some of the advantages that come with dealing with the queue which must be considered. The following are the disadvantages of the queue

  1. Can be Time Consuming: The process of operating in a queue can be time-consuming because the insertion of an element and deletion will take time as it is done step by step by following the rule of first come first serve.
  2. Searching is Not Easy: It becomes difficult if we want to search for any element in between the ordered list in Queue.
  3. Limited Space Issue: In Queue if the size of it is predefined then it can be an issue as no more new elements can be entered in between so the limited space is the major problem in this.
  4. Difficulty in Insertion: The main problem is any element cannot be inserted in between the operation until the elements are present before being removed.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Queue

Comparison Table Between Advantages and Disadvantages of Queue

Advantages of QueueDisadvantages of Queue
It is good for operating and managing huge data.Implements in an ordered list process can be time-consuming.
It implements other data structures like arrays and lists etc.Searching for any data in this is not easy.
It is very fast in operating data.Space is predefined so it is limited
Helpful in managing multiple users’ needs.A new element cannot be inserted without the deletion of the old element.
Very easy to use or implement.Security can be a problem.

FAQs on Advantages and Disadvantages of Queue

Question 1.
What is a Queue? What are its uses?

Answer:
A Queue in the data structure to perform operations by collecting data in a particular order so that the data can be used in the sequence of first in first out(FIFO). The queue is open at both ends unlike stacks where the data is stored and used in the sequence of lastly inserted will be accessed for performing any task.

Usually, it is used when the application is made for the use of multiple users that can be easily accessed by them. For example, we make a song playlist in which we add songs and they play in the order as it is selected.

Here are some of the applications in the queue:

  1. Used to play music in mp3 players by applying as a buffer.
  2. Also used in making a playlist.
  3. Used when network issues occur while sending messages and by queue, it is stored in the server.
  4. It also manages interruptions in the operating system.

These were some of the uses of queues.

Question 2.
What are the basic operations that are needed to use a queue?

Answer:
The basic operations that must be understood before utilizing data in the queue are;

  • Enqueue() – it is to add or insert data to the queue.
  • Dequeue() – it is for removing or deleting data from the queue.
  • Peek() –  In this, any element is acquired in the front node without deleting it.
  • isFull() – This is checks if queue is full.
  • isNull() – It checks if the queue is empty.

In a queue when the data is added or inserted then this process is called Enqueue and when any element is removed from the queue then it is called Dequeue.

Question 3.
What are the benefits of using the queue?

Answer:
Here are the benefits of using the queue which is as follows:

  • The queue can be used well for managing a large amount of data very efficiently by using an array and linked list so that it is huge data can be operated smoothly.
  • A queue has a feature to implement other data structures like arrays, lists, pointers, stacks, etc
  • The queue is very much fast speed.
  • When we want to apply one application for many or multiple users then the queue very efficiently operates on this type of requirement.
  • The queue is very easy to operate as it is simple to use without making the application complex and can be easily used by beginners.

Topology Advantages And Disadvantages | Benefits and Limitations, Pros and Cons of Topology

Topology Advantages And Disadvantages: Topology suggests the way wherein the network of PCs is related. Each Topology is fit for unequivocal tasks and enjoys its own benefits and detriments. The choice of Topology is liable to the kind of use, a number of equipment being used, the speed of data move required, response time, and cost.

The word network Topology is used to explain the way wherein a network is really related. The point is to exchange the data like text, sound/video, and pictures beginning with one point and then onto the following.

A network Topology alludes to the manner by which hubs in a network are associated with each other. The network structure characterizes how they impart. Every sort of course of action of the network hubs enjoys its own benefits and impediments. Here we enlighten you regarding something similar. Network Topologies portray the manners by which the components of a network are associated. They depict the physical and legitimate game plan of network hubs.

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What is Network Topology? Advantages and Disadvantages of Topology 2022

A Network Topology is the plan of the different components (connections and hubs) of a PC network. Basically, it is the topological construction of a network and might be portrayed genuinely or intelligently. There are 5 unique kinds of network Topologies usually utilized in correspondence frameworks.

The sorts of Topology are:

  • Bus Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Star Topology
  • Tree Topology
  • Hybrid Topology

Every Topology framework utilizes an alternate strategy and gathering of mediums to basically ship a message or piece of information to a PC, alluded to as a hub. Every Topology network is genuinely communicated as a special design that addresses the components of a correspondence framework. For instance a centre point, hub, link and point of interaction connectors.

While picking a systems administration framework in correspondence, it is critical to dissect the viability and value of the systems administration type, to the specific setting. In doing as such, it is fitting to comprehend that every Topology framework enjoys its benefits and weaknesses.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology

Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology

Every one of the hubs is associated with a single link in the transport network Topology type. The link begins from the hub and ends on the opposite end.

Advantages of Bus TopologyDisadvantages of Bus Topology
It is modest, simple to introduce and simple to execute.

It requires less link work.

It is best relevant for little networks like LAN.

Any two stations convey straightforwardly without impedance or the help of some other hub or hubs.

Any additional hubs can be added with no interruption of the administrations.

It involves a coaxial link or curved pair because of transmissions in both headings.

It gives the quickest speed because of direct correspondence between hubs.

The link length is restricted and thus it limits the number of stations upheld by the transport network.

As referenced it performs well for a set number of hubs.

Shortcoming detachment is troublesome.

Experiences signal reflections at closes and at joints. This should be planned suitably.

An optical fiber-based transport network needs bi-directional optical couplers to perform two-way correspondence.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology

In a star network, every hub is associated with a focal gadget known as a Concentrator or Hub. Hubs can be document servers, workstations, and peripherals. Here center gets the sign from any hub and passes it to the wide range of various hubs on the network.

Advantages of Star TopologyDisadvantages of Star Topology
Every one of the hubs are associated with a focal hub. Subsequently, it decreases the chances of complete network disappointment. Just the flawed hubs should be fixed.

It is not difficult to make due.

It is not difficult to introduce and wire the hubs.

Finding the problems is simple.

It is not difficult to extend contrast with transport and ring network Topologies.

It requires more link length contrast with straight Topologies.

If the center or concentrator flops every one of the joined hubs are debilitated. Repetitive centers are saved for such basic circumstances.

It is more costly because of the cost of concentrators.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Network

Every one of the hubs is associated start to finish to frame circle. Here every hub has an association with two different hubs one to the left and the other to the right of it. Here there is no focal hub and every one of the hubs has some control functionalities. They recognize their own location and furthermore does retransmission. The message design comprises of objective hub address followed by an information payload.

Advantages of Ring NetworkDisadvantages of Ring Network
It is simpler to oversee and consequently, shortcoming confinement is simple and clear.

It has the least expensive among all the network Topologies.

It is a systematic network where each gadget approaches the token and amazing chance to communicate.

It gives great correspondence over longer distances.

It handles traffic with high volume.

The inability to any link or hub will separate the whole network. This additionally requires some investment to reestablish the network.

Any additional hub is added in the wake of closing down the whole network and consequently will upset the administrations to the functional hubs.

It gives the slowest speed as hubs are gotten to successively.

The development or change made to any hubs will influence the exhibition of the whole network.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tree Topology

In this plan, the hub at each level could be shaping a star network with the hubs it serves. For this situation, the construction joins star and transport Topologies and acquires their benefits and drawbacks.

Advantages of Tree TopologyDisadvantages of Tree Topology
The tree Topology is valuable in situations where a star or transport can’t be carried out exclusively. It is most fit in systems administration various branches of a college or partnership, where every unit (star portion) works independently and is likewise associated with the primary hub (root hub).

The benefits of centralization that are accomplished in a star Topology are acquired by the singular star fragments in a tree network.

Each star portion gets a devoted connection from the focal transport. Subsequently, coming up short of one fragment doesn’t influence the remainder of the network.

Error identification is easy

This network is expandable

As numerous fragments are associated with focal transport, the network relies vigorously upon transport. Its disappointment influences the whole network.

Attributable to its size and intricacy, support is difficult and costs are high. Additionally, design is troublesome in contrast with that in different Topologies.

However it is adaptable, the quantity of hubs that can be added relies upon the limit of the focal transport and on the link type

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology

A hybrid topology is the combination of two or more topologies. It has its advantages and disadvantages too.

Advantages of Hybrid TopologyDisadvantages of Hybrid Topology
In contrast to different networks, shortcoming discovery and investigating are simple in this sort of Topology. The part wherein a shortcoming is identified can be disengaged from the remainder of the network and required remedial measures can be taken, WITHOUT influencing the working of the rest of the network.

It’s not difficult to build the size of the network by adding new parts, without upsetting the existing design.

Crossover Network can be planned by the necessities of the association and by streamlining the accessible assets. Extraordinary consideration can be given to hubs where traffic is high as well as where chances of shortcomings are high.

One of the greatest disadvantages of the hybrid topology is its plan. Planning this sort of engineering and it’s a difficult situation for designers difficult. The arrangement and establishment process should be exceptionally effective.

The centers used to interface two unmistakable networks, are pricey. These centers are not quite the same as expected centers as the need might arise to be sufficiently keen to work with various models and ought to be capable regardless of whether a piece of network is down.

As hybrid designs are generally bigger in scale, they require a ton of links, cooling frameworks, sophisticated network gadgets, and so on.

FAQs on Pros and Cons of Topology

Question 1.
What are the advantages of topology?

Answer:
Because of its incorporated nature, the topology offers straightforwardness of activity. It additionally accomplishes the separation of every gadget in the organization. Adding or eliminating network hubs is simple, and should be possible without influencing the whole organization. Because of its unified nature, recognizing shortcomings in the network’s devices is simple.

Question 2.
What are the disadvantages of topology?

Answer:
Sometimes we need more cable length such as in star topology. The cost could be more. Difficult to maintain sometimes. Bus topology does not support large networks.

Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages | Characteristics, Documents Required, Limitations, Pros and Cons

Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages

Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages: Private limited companies, as defined in Section 2 (68) of The Companies Act, 2013, are companies with limited liability and are held privately. They do not freely transfer their shares to the public as other public companies do. A private limited company has all its profits and liabilities belonging solely to the company and investors may not be responsible for the company’s debts.

A private limited company is generally owned by small businesses. A private limited company’s members have limited liability based on the number of shares they own, and the company shares cannot be traded publicly.

Private Limited companies are the most popular form of business registration in India since they are easy to set up, provide limited liability protection to shareholders, have the ability to raise equity funds, and are considered separate legal entities. Thus, millions of small and medium-sized businesses, whether family-operated or managed by professionals, have set themselves up as Private Limited companies. This article examines private limited companies and discusses them in detail.

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What is a Private Limited Company? Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Limited Company 2022

Private limited companies are defined in the Companies Act, 2013 as companies whose articles of association restrict the transferability of shares and prevent the public from subscribing to them. This is an essential characteristic that differentiates them from other types of public companies.

A minimum of two directors and a maximum of fifteen directors are required for a private limited company. At least two shareholders are required for the legal distribution of shares and up to a maximum of two hundred shareholders.

Characteristics of Private Limited Company

  • Members: According to the Companies Act of 2013, a minimum of two members and a maximum of 200 members are necessary to form a corporation.
  • Paid-up capital: It must have a minimum paid-up capital of Rs 1 lakh or a greater amount as determined by the Board from time to time.
  • Minimum subscription: The minimum subscription is the amount obtained by the corporation that equals 90% of the shares issued within a specified time period. If the company does not obtain 90% of the funds, it will be unable to continue operations. A private limited corporation can issue shares to the public without requiring a minimum subscription.
  • Name: The word “private limited” must appear after the name of any private company.
  • Limited liability: Each member’s or shareholder’s liability is limited. It means that if a firm experiences a loss in any way, its shareholders may be forced to sell their own assets to make up the difference. The shareholders’ personal assets remain unaffected.
  • Perpetual succession: In the perspective of the law, the corporation continues to exist even if one of its members dies, becomes insolvent, or declares bankruptcy. As a result, the company can continue to exist indefinitely. The company’s existence will continue indefinitely.

Documents Required for forming a Private Limited Company

Memorandum of Association: The aim of forming a company, the type of the firm, the company’s goal, and the capital clause are all discussed in the memorandum of association. It is a corporate document that defines a company’s relationships with shareholders and specifies the company’s goals. It is also referred to as a charter of the company.

Article of Association: The internal operating system of the business is discussed in this document. It goes over the management process, each member’s tasks and obligations, dividend policy, shareholder meetings, and director appointments.

After submitting the essential paperwork for registration, the directors obtain a certificate or licence. The Registrar of Companies (ROC) in India issues this document, which serves as the primary means of company authentication.

Other documents: ID proof (PAN card, Aadhaar card), address proof (ration card, voter id), rental agreement, NOC from the property owner, and a copy of the sale deed for the held property for all directors and shareholders of the company are among the other documents.

Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of Private Limited Company

No Minimum Capital: It is possible to form a Private Limited Company without a minimum capital requirement. The Authorized Share Capital of a Private Limited Company might be as low as Rs. 10,000.

Separate Legal Entity: In the eyes of the law, a Private Limited Company has a distinct legal personality, which means the company’s assets and liabilities are distinct from the Directors’ assets and obligations. Both are counted separately. Management and ownership are separated in a Private Limited Company, thus managers are liable for the company’s success as well as its failure.

Limited Liability: Because a person’s liability is restricted, the personal assets of members will not be used to pay the company’s debts if the firm becomes financially distressed for whatever reason.

For example, if a Private Limited Company accepts a loan and is unable to repay it, the members are only liable to pay the number of their shares, i.e. the unpaid share value, towards their own shareholding. This means that if you have no outstanding balance due on the number of shares you own, you are not liable for any debt owed to the company, even though the debt/credit balance is still owed.

Secrecy: A private limited company is essentially a family concern. It is not necessary to make its activities and judgments widely known. It is not compelled to publish its financial statements or keep them open to public review. As a result, it is in a better position to keep the secrecy of its economic activities.

Disadvantages of Private Limited Company

  • Cannot be Listed: Shares in the stock market cannot be cited, which means that the posting of organisations for the initial sale of stock is not possible.
  • Proprietorship Division or Ownership Division: A notable impediment to a private restricted organization’s consolidation is that it requires at least two executives and investors, resulting in the division of offers.
  • Documenting Taxes Every Year: It’s crucial to keep track of your records at Companies House every monetary year, as they’ll be public. The majority of the time, a Chartered Account is used to document the evaluations for your private restricted business.
  • Limited Shareholders: The number of investors or persons in a Pvt Ltd or Private Limited Company cannot exceed 50.

 

Comparison Table for Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages

AdvantagesDisadvantages
It can be owned and controlled by a single individual.The shares of private limited companies cannot sell their shares to the general public.
It has a separate legal entity.Due to a limited number of shareholders, it cannot raise huge funds as compared to public limited companies.
The liability of the shareholders is limited to the number of shares held by them.The profits of a private limited company are shared amongst more people.
It is easy to form as just two persons are required to form it. It can also begin operations as soon as it is incorporated.It is not easy and simple to transfer shares of a private limited company.

Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages 2

FAQ’s on Private Limited Company Advantages and Disadvantages

Question 1.
What are the minimum Requirement to start a Private Limited Company?

Answer:
There must be a minimum of two adult directors.

The Directors of a Private Limited Company should be Indian citizens and Residents of a country.

  • A foreign national could be one of the other directors.
  • Two shareholders are also required for a firm to exist.
  • Shareholders might be individuals or legal entities.

Question 2.
Who owns a Private Limited Company?

Answer:
Private Limited Companies are privately held businesses. They are owned by their shareholders, and the total number of shareholders cannot exceed 200.

Question 3.
The number of directors a Private Limited Company has?

Answer:
At least one director and one incorporator are required for a private company. The directors and incorporators may be the same person, But, the word “person” includes a legal entity, Which means a trust or a legal entity can be the incorporator of a new company.

Question 4.
Is it possible for a single person to run a Private Limited Company?

Answer:
It is possible for an individual to form a private limited company as its sole shareholder and director or a private limited company can be formed with multiple shareholders.