A New Combined History & Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions The Europeans in India and The Anglo-French Struggle.
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I. Answer the following questions in not more than 40 words each :
Give a brief account of the Portuguese power in India.
The Portuguese were the first to come to India towards the end of 15th century when the sailor Vasco-da-Gama reached on the west coast of India in 1498. By the end of 16th century they set up their colonial empire including Goa, Daman, Diu, Mumbai, Bassein and Salsette on the western coast of India and Hoogly and Chittagong in Bengal, in the east.
Explain any four causes of the fall of the Portuguese power in India.
After conquering Brazil in South America, the Portuguese started to pay more attention to that side and became careless about India. Moreover, when Portugal was conquered by Spain, their power weakened and their chances to flourish the power in India was almost doomed.
What was the importance of the conquest of Goa by the Portuguese ?
Occupation of Goa by the Portuguese was meant for the development of trade and commerce via Red Sea and Suez canal, and to cover the market area of the western coast as Goa in the middle point of the coast. They established churches and the trade of spices and cashew nuts in Goa and surrounding region.
Why did the European countries interfere in the internal affairs of the Indian rulers ?
The European countries were deeply interested in exploiting the rich resources of India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, French and the English people all came to India one by one and tried to establish their trade centers in various parts. At last the French and the English survived as the main powers, out of which the English people won the game by establishing the East India Company on December 31, 1600. The monopoly of trade was carried,, on by establishing various factories in Surat, Agra, Ahmadabad and Broach. In 1650, the company was allowed to trade in Bengal and set up factories at Hoogly and other places. Charles II handed over Mumbai to the company in 1668 and it became the commerical center for export and import.
What were the causes of conflict between the English and the French ?
England and France are called the rival countries due to their continuous tussle for gaining power in various countries as colonial rule. India was the main target and the reason for mutual wars for expanding their power and market in India. First, second and third Carnatic Wars were faught between them and at last the English became successful in maintaining the Supreme Power in India.
II. Answer the following questions in not more than 100 words each :
Throw some light on the history of the East India Company from its establishment in A.D. 1600 to 1763.
A group of English merchants organized a company to trade with the East. It was named East India Company and was granted a Charter on December 31, 1600. From Queen Elizabeth. Hawkins, the ambassador of James I (King of England), visited the court of Jahangir in 1609 and got a firman to set up an English factory at Surat. Another ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe, got permission from the Mughal court to open factories at Agra, Ahmadabad and Broach. In 1639, by the permission of Raja of Chandragiri, Founded the city of Madras on the east coast and built a fort called Fort St. George, which became the headquarters of the English settlements. Again in 1650, the company was allowed to trade in Bengal and set up factories at Hoogly and other places. In 1661. Charles II the King of England allowed the company to issue coins to maintain army and build forts, etc. In 1668, Mumbai came under the control of the company. In 1698, the company acquired three villages and established the city of Calcutta. With the facilities of the ports of Calcutta and Mumbai, the company flourished its trade and power throughout India.
When and why was the French Company set up ? What were the main reasons that led to the Anglo-French rivalry and the Carnatic Wars ?
The French East India Company was established in 1664, at Surat and Masulipatam. In 1674 the French founded Pondicherry as their headquarters. In 1742, Dupleix, as the Governor of the French possessions, wanted to establish a French Empire in India. But, at the same time the English were trying to expand their power all over India. After defeating the Portuguese and the Dutch, now the French were the only rival of the English. Hence, three bloody wars were fought as Carnatic wars and the English became victorious. At that time the eastern coast of India was divided into two parts namely the North Sirkars under the English and the Carnatic Sirkars under the French.
Why is Clive regarded as the founder of the British Empire in India ?
Under the clever guidance of Clive the English became successful to gain power in India. In 1751, he captured Arcot, the capital of Carnatic and nullified the plans of Dupleix. In 1756, Calcutta was captured by Siraj-ud-Daula but Clive recaptured it in 1757. Again in March 1757, he attacked and captured Chandernagar, the French seat in Bengal. In 1757, in the famous battle of Plassey he defeated Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daula. In 1759, he defeated the Dutch at Chinsura in Bengal. In third Carnatic war, he captured North Sircars and more over singed a Treaty of Allahabad with Shah Alam, the Mughal Emperor and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh in 1765. He annexed the whole territory. In this way, he sited the firm position of the British Empire in India.
Estimate the work of Dupleix in establishing a French Empire in India
Dupleix was the remarkable French Governor in India. He came as the Governor of Chander Nagar a French colony in Bengal and in A.D. 1742 he was appointed as the Governor of all the French colonies in India up to 12-13 years. As a shrewd politician he realised the weakness of the Mughal Empire. Besides this he was alert about the strength of the British Empire. So, he tried strong attempts to overpower the British by taking Madras in his possession, defeated Nawab of Carnatic, in A.D. 1748, he saved Pondicherry from the British occupation. He gained the favour of Northern Sircars by appointing Chanda Sahib on the throne of Carnatic and Muzaffar Jang on the throne of Hyderabad. So, up to 1751 the supremacy of the French power was due to the efforts made by Dupleix.
Describe the causes of the ultimate success of the British in their conflict against the French Company.
It is said that the British people are the inborn administrators 1 is truly proved in the Indian History. On account of the better financial position, full support from Home, better trade centers, Conquest of Bengal, capable generals, full cooperation amongest the English officers, recall of Dupleix at the hour of need, mastery of the sea,European politics,and PiH’s policy. Due to mutual wars among the French and English diverted the attention of the French generals towards France and ultimately their power faded away in the Indian mainland.
III. Some of the following statements are true, others are false. Put‘T’ against the True statements and ‘F’ against the False statements :
- Columbus discovered the sea-route to India.
- Captain Hawkins was the representative of King James I of England in the Mughal Court.
- The Dutch were the main rivals of the East India Company in India
- Sir Eyre Coote was a French General who is regarded as the hero of Wandiwash.
- The First Carnatic War was an echo of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe.
IV. What important events are associated with the following dates ?
- A.D. 1498 Vasco-da-Gama reached India.
- A.D. 1600 British East India Company established.
- A.D. 1602 Dutch East India Company established.
- A.D. 1615 English got permission to set factory at Surat.
- A.D. 1664 East India Company was allowed to issue coins.
- A.D. 1755 French Governor-General. Gadheau. entered treaty with the English.
- A.D. 1763 Third Carnatic War came to an end with the treaty at Paris.
A. Fill in the blanks.
- The English East India Company was established in the year 1600.
- The English East India Company set up its first factor) in Surat
- Madras, Bombay and Calcutta became the headquarters of the British settlements in the southern, western and eastern regions, respectively.
- In 1717, the Mughal emperor granted the United East India Company the right to carry on duty-free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
- The French East India Company was established in 1664 Its headquarters was based in Pondiche
- The British and the French fought the Carnatic Wars in India to establish their monopoly in trade.
- In 1748, wars of succession broke out in the states of Hyderabad and Carnatic
- Clive captured Arcot, the capital of Carnatic.
- The Third carnatic war shattered the French dreams of building an Indian empire.
- The British Company was a private company and therefore free from the State interference, The French Company, on the other hand, was a government interference.
B. Match the following.
C. Answer the following questions.
Name the British settlements in
- Madras : Fort St. george
- Calutta : Fort William
Account for the Anglo-French rivalry in India. What did this rivalry lead to?
The French and the British were both equally determined to establish trade monopoly in India. An intense competition followed. They became arch-rivals in trade and this rivalry eventually led to wars.
Mention the causes and results of the First Carnatic War.
Causes of the first Carnatic War Dupleix, the governor of the French company captured Madras. The British complained to the Nawab of Carnatic who sent an army against the French. The Nawab’s army was completely routed by Dupleix.
Results of the war
- Neither side had made any territorial gains. The war, however, had-raised the prestige of the French.
- The weaknesses of the Indian rulers in the south had been exposed. The Nawab of Carnatic had failed to stop a war in his own territory.
- The superiority of modern European military methods and discipline was established. The large armies of the Indian rulers were no match against the smaller European armies.
Why did Dupleix decide to interfere in the mutual quarrels of the Indian rulers?
Dupleix decided to interfere in the mutual quarrels of the Indian rulers, support one against the other and extract favours from the victor. His objective was to set up puppet rulers who would later serve the interests of the French.
Who were, the nominees of the
(1) French and the
(2) British, in the wars of succession in Hyderabad and Carnatic in 1748?
The nominees in the wars of succession were
Hyderabad MuzaffarJung NasirJung
Carnatic Chanda sahib
Why did Robert Clive capture French settlements?
Robert Ciive persuaded a bold and brilliant plan. To put pressure on chanda sahib Clive marched to Arcot, the capital of Carnatic with 500 soldiers and captured it. The capture of Arcot caught the French completely off gauard and they despatched troops from Trichinopoly to recover the capital. Meanwhile the British forces defeated the french one in Trichinopoly. Chanda Sahib was captured and killed.
What were the results of the Second Carnatic War?
Results of the Second Carnatic War After the Second Carnatic War the French government initiate peace negotiations and recalled Dupleix to France. The governors who succeeded him made peace with the British. The recall of Dupleix was a severe blow to French ambitions in India. The Second Carnatic War restored the lost prestige of the British and led to the establishment of British control over Carnatic.
Mention the causes and results of the Third Carnatic War
The Third Carnatic War. like the first, was an extension of another european War with the outbreak of hostilities between England and France in Europe, the echoes were felt in Carnatic. The temporary peace between the French and the British Companies was shattered.
Results of the War :
The Third Carnatic War shattered French dreams of building an Indian empire. Pondicherry was returned to them but they were not allowed to fortify it. The British established their political influence over Carnatic. T he Northern Circars passed under their control. Freed of all European rivals, they now set out to conquer India.
Mention any five reasons for the success of the British $ver their French rivals. Explain any two.
- British Naval Supremacy
- Financial Stability
- Freedom from government control and Interference
- Progressive Government
- Capable Leadership
1.Financial Stability : The British Company was financially much stronger than the French. Their larger and better fortified settlements in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were far superior to those of the French. The British carried on lucrative trade even during the war. The conquest j)f the rich and prosperous Provinces of Bengal became an additional source of wealth. The French, on the other hand, were always short of funds.
2. Capable Leadership : The British Company was led by capable and efficient generals with excellent leadership qualities. They were far superior to the French generals. Even Dupieix, a capable general, was no match for Clive.
What valuable lessons did the British learn during the Anglo-French conflict in the Carnatic?
During their struggle with the French, the British had learnt
some valuable lessons Iike-
- The mutual European army the Indian rulers could be used to further their political schemes.
- A small, modern European army could easily defeat large old battles.
- An Indian soldier trained in the art of European warfare was as capable competent as a European soldier.
D. State whether the following are true or false.
- Carnatic wars were fought between the British and the French.
- The French East India Company established its headquarters at Surat.
Reason The French East India company established its headquarters in Pondicherry.
- The Third Carnatic war shattered the British dreams of building an Indian empire.
Reason:- The Third Carnatic war shattered the french dreams of building an Indian empire.
- Dupleix was an incapable French General.
Reason:- Dupleix was a capable french general
- The French Company was not a government enterprise.
Reason: The French Company was a government enteiprise.
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