A New Combined History & Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions Rise of Regional Powers and the Marathas

A New Combined History & Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions Rise of Regional Powers and the Marathas.

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I. Answer the following questions in not more than 40 words :

Question 1.
Name any three regional powers which rose in the 18th century.
Three regional powers which rose in the, 18th century were of Bengal led by the governor Murshid Quli Khan. Deccan governed by Nizam-ul-Mulk and of Oudh administered by Saadat Khan, whose son-in-law Safdar Jang as Nawab founded an independent dynasty in Oudh.

Question 2.
Give an account of the rise of Bengal in the 18th century.
Murshid Quli Khan, the governor of Bengal (1717-1727), shifted his capital to Murshidabad and became independent of Delhi. He was succeeded by Shuja-ud-Daula (1727­-1739) and Ali Vardi Khan (1739-1756). The province of Bengal prospered under these rulers. Ali Vardi Khan also made a treaty with Marathas by paying them tribute in order to make friendly relations.

Question 3.
How did Hyderabad assert its independence in the 18th century ?
The state of Hyderabad was founded Jty Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was the governor of Deccan. Mohammad Shah made him the Wazir at Delhi to reform the administration, but he could not adjust with this tough task, so he returned to Deccan and carved out a Kingdom for himself. This dynasty was known as “Asaf Johi Dynasty’ till A.D. 1948.

Question 4.
How did the Sikhs rise to power in the 18th century ?
Guru Govind Singh established ‘Khalsa’ organization to fight against tyrant rulers. After his death it was led by the  great general Banda Bahadur, under whose guidance, the Sikhs became the major force in the Punjab covering the region from Lahore to Delhi, but he was tortured to death during the reign of Farrukh Siyar in 1716. Afterwards, the groups known as ‘Misls’ performed their duties, but at last Ranjit Singh brought the whole area west of the river Satluj, under his control and established a Sikh Kingdom.

Question 5.
Give any three causes of the decline of the Rajput power after the death of Aurangzeb.
After the death of Aurangzeb, Rajput power also declined along with the Mughal power. Three causes are mutual quarrels amongest Rajput Kingdoms, wasting treasury in wars, and the rise of other powers of Marathas and the Jals. Only exception is the glorious work done by Sawai Raja Jai Singh, who built the pink city of Jaipur and established astronomical observatories ‘Jantar MantaT at Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi, Ujjain and Mathura, etc.

Question 6.
Who was Hyder Ali ?
Hyder Ali was a petty officer in the Mysore army, who overthrew the ruling dynasty in 1760 and himself became the ruler of Mysore up to 1782 and proved him an excellent administrator. He overpowerd rebels, improved finances and appointed many Hindus in higher ranks and proved himself unselfish about cast and creed.

II. Answer the following questions up to 100 words :

Question 1.
Why were the provincial kingdoms always engaged in wars ?
he provincial kingdoms never combined together to form a solid power. Apart from this, these kingdoms of Rajputs always indulged them in fighting with one another. This trend made them weaker and financial looser. They wanted their personal gain and extention of kingdoms, but became insignificant during the 18th century and overpowered by Mughals and Britishers. In this way. these kingdoms formed a bad phase of Indian history.

Question 2.
“The Third Battle of Panipat w as one of the most decisive battles of India.” How far do you agree with this view?
“The Third Battle of Panipat” was remarkable for the major change in the historic map of India when in A.D. 1761,  Ahmed Shah Abdali forced the Marathas to retreat to the Deccan, covering his area from Punjab to Delhi and the Mughal Empire was reduced to the limited, areas surrounding Delhi and the Mughal Empire almost finished .when the last Mughal King Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon by the East India Company. So, this battle was a big Blow to the destiny of the Mughal Empire.

Question 3.
Throw some light on the character and achievements of : Tipu Sultan.
Tipu Sultan (1782-99) was the able son of Hyder Ali. He was an efficient army general and ruler of Mysore. He improved the state by solid financial position, trade,  industries, new cities and towns. He arranged his army in European lines with muskets and bayonets, which were manufactured in his own state. He was a great patriot and brave soldier and fought for his country with devotion and chivalry till his death.

Question 4.
Who were the Peshwas ? Trace the course of events that led to the glory of the Maratha power under the first three Peshwas.
After Aurangzeb’s death (1707), Sahu held the throne and appointed Balaji Vishwanath, the Peshwa or Prime Minister in A.D. 1713. Balaji made Poona the capital of Maratha Kingdom. His rule lasted from A.D. 1713 to 1720. He made many reforms, received the Territories from Sayyid Brothers. Thus the territories which belonged to Shivaji but conquered by the Mughals were again restored to Marathas. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi (taxes) were received from the six Mughal provinces of the Deccan. Hence Balaji regained the majestic power of Marathas in the Deccan. He was succeeded by his son Baji Rao 1, who was a bold and brilliant commander, clever statesman and able ruler. He conquered Malwa in A.D. 1724 and marched towards Gujrat. He also compelled Nizam of Hyderabad to pay the taxes. Alter seizing large portion of Bundel Khand. he crossed Yamuna and reached Delhi and established Maratha Confederacy. His 18-years old son, Balaji Baji Rao, became third Peshwa in 1750. Under his guidance the Maratha armies over-ran the whole of India. He speed his power to Central India, Bengal, Orissa, Hyderabad Kingdom and Delhi, by 1761, the Maratha flag flew over the fort of Attok.

Question 5.
Why did the Marathas fail to find a strong and stable political power to replace the Mughals ?.
lthough, the Marathas expanded their power through out a major part of India; but it created many problems, too. They could not combined the different parts into a single powerful kingdom due to mutual quarrels and rivalries. Besides this, the defeat of the Marathas in the third Battle of Panipat deeply affected their power and gave way to rise the British power in India. Apart from this, the Marathas developed enemity with Rajputs and Sikhs by looting and plundering the Hindu states of northern India. They did not developed agriculture and trade. Both the Hindus and the Muslims were annoyed with the Marathas due to robbery and taxes. So. the Marathas failed to establish a peaceful and prosperous kingdom.

III. Following statements are false. Correct them.

  1. Ali Vardi Khan was the ruler of Oudh.
    Ans. Ali Vardi Khan was the governor of Oudh.
  1. Shuja-ud-DauIa was the ruler of Bengal.
    Ans. Shuja-ud-DauIa was the governor of Oudh.
  1. Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas in the Second Battle of Panipat.
    Ans. Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat.
  1. Safdar Jang was the first Nizam of Hyderabad.
    Ans. Safdar Jang was Nawab of Oudh and also Wazir of Mughal Empire.
  1. Baji Rao built observatories at Delhi, Jaipur and Benaras.
    Ans. Baji Rao organised four Maratha chiefs into a union known as the ‘Maratha Confederacy’.

IV.   Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words :

  1.  Hyder Ali was the ruler of Mysore.
  2. Sawai Jai Singh founded the Pink city of Jaipur.
  3. Murshid Quli Khan became the independent ruler of Bengal and shifted his capital to Murshidabad.
  4. Balaji Vishwanath was the first Peshwa.
  5. Banda Bahadur was an able leader of the Sikhs after the death of Guru Gobind Singh.

Practice Questions

A. Fill in the blanks.

  1. Balaji Vishwanath laid the foundation of Dynastic aile of the Peshwas.
  2. The most capable among the successors of Murshid Quli Khan was Alivardi Khan
  3. Lucknow was the cultural capital of Awadh.
  4. The state of Hyderabad was founded by the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan, Asaf Jah.
  5. Mysore, under the leadership of HyderAli became the most formidable adversary of the English East India Company in the south.
  6. Guru Govind Singh ji, the tenth Sikh guru, organized a milatary brotherhood of Sikhs called Khalsa
  7. The Treaty of Amritsar was signed in 1809 between Ranjit Singh and Lord-Minto

B. Match the following.
A New Combined History & Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions Rise of Regional Powers and the Marathas 1
A New Combined History & Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions Rise of Regional Powers and the Marathas 2

C. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What followed the disintegration of the Mughal empire?
The disintegration of the Mughal empire led to the rise of number of independent and semi-independent regional powers such as Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad, Maratha, Mysore and sikh kingdoms.

Question 2.
Mention the circumstances that led of the growth of Peshwa dominance in the Maratha kingdom.
The Maratha kingdom was captured by shahu the grandson of Shivaji with the help of Balaji Vishwanath. Shahu appointed Balaji as Pesha for his services and loyalty. Shahu himself was a ease loving and weak ruler which resulted in reducing his position as only ceremonial head of the Maratha kingdom. While real power and authority was exercised by the Peshwa, which led to the growth of Peshwa dominance in the Maratha kingdom.

Question 3.
Name the four prominent Maratha families in the Maratha confederacy.

  1.  Bhonsle
  2. Holkar
  3. Sindhia
  4. Gaekwad

Question 4.
The conquest of Punjab was a turning point in the history of the Maratha empire. Explain.
The conquest of Punjab brought the Maratha’s into direct conflict with the Afghan general, Ahmad Shah Abdali.A major struggle for mastery over North India began. The Maratha army was decisively defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali at Panipat land. Their dream to replace the Mughal empire in North India was also scattered.

Question 5.
Why did Bengal become a happy hunting ground for the English East India Company?
The Nawabs of Bengal failed to understand the true nature and ulimate motives of the British trading company. They felt that a trading company could never challenge their authority.
No efforts were made to reorganize and strengthen the army. Corruption was much and even high ranking officials were susceptible to bribes. These weakneses made Bengal a happy hunting ground for the English East India Company.

Question 6.
How did political and economic stability in Awadh impact cultural development in Lucknow?
The Nawabs of Awadh were lntelligent, efficient and order, introduced revenue reforms and strengthened their array. The prolonged period of peace and economic prosperity stimulated the growth of a refined and distinct lucknavi culture. Lucknow, the capital city, blossomed into a center for creative and performing arts, literature and architecture.

Question 7.
How did Hyder Ali become the ruler of Mysore?
Hyder Ali was a man of exceptional qualities and abilities. He rose from the rank of an ordinary soldier in the Mysore army to the position of commander by his efficiency and determination. In 1761 he overthrew the government an established his authority over the Mysore state.

Question 8.
What measures did Tipu Sultan adopt to make Mysore prosperous and strong?
Tipu Sultan proved to be a worthy successor. He introduced many reforms to overhaul and reorganize the administrative machinery. He modernized the army and strengthened the economy by encouraging agriculture and modem trade and industry.

Question 9.
Why did the Rajputs fail to establish an empire in India?
The Rajputs fail to establish an empire in India because they were busy in looking for their individual goals and interests which were often divergent and conflicting. They made no efforts to establish a Rajput empire, instead they were busy in finishing their energies in petty quarrels. The Rajput courts like the Mughal one’s were busy in conspiracies and corruption, which led to their failure.

Question 10.
Mention two important terms of the Treaty of Amritsar (1809).
Two important terms of the Treaty of Amritsar were :

  1. By this treaty Maharaja Ranjit singh accepted the Sutlez River as the boundary between the Sikh kingdom and,British territories.
  2. The British promised not to interfere in the affairs of the sikh kingdom.

D. State whether the following are true or false.

  1. Shahu was a strong and efficient Maratha ruler.
    Reason:- Shahu was ease loving and weak Maratha ruler.
  2. The Maratha empire reached the heights of its power and glory during the reign of Balaji Baji Rao
  3. Bengal was one of the poorest provinces of the Mughal empire.
    Reason: Bengal was the richest provinces of the Mughal empire
  4. Shuja-ud-DauIah was the nawab of Hyderabad.
    Reason:- Shiya-ud-Daulah was the nawab of Awadh.
  5. The most powerful kingdom in the south was Mysore.

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