A New Combined History & Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions Impact of the British Rule in India.
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1. Answer the following questions in 40-50 words :
What were the objectives of the British to introduce English in India ?
The British wanted to introduce English in India in order to communicate with the Indian people and to appoint them in their service in reasonable rates inspite of importing highly-paid workers from England. Besides this they intended to influence the people with western culture and to follow their aims and to accept the supremacy of the English culture and trends. Their ultimate purpose was to overwhelm the Indians by each and every possible way.
How did the introduction of English lead to the encouragement of literature ?
After the introduction of the English, the Indian people came to know the importance of human rights and equality and also realised the importance of their own culture. The social reformers talked in the local languages of the states while communicating about the basic principles of life and the duties of human beings. This compaign also promoted the literature of the local languages and various eminent writers wrote essays, stories, poems, etc. e.g. Bhartendu Harish Chandra, and Prem Chand in Hindi, Bankim Chandra and Rabindra Nath Tagore in Bengali, etc.
What was the contribution of Max Mueller to Sanskrit literature ?
Max Mueller was a German and one of the greatest scholars of Sanskrit. He regarded India very much and translated ‘Rigveda’ into English in 1857 A.D. He published the Saered Books of the East in English in 50 volumes. He acknowledged the importance of Sanskrit literature to the Indian people and to make realise them the deepness and purity of the Sanskrit language.
What steps were taken by the British Government for the abolition of Sati ?
In A.D. 1829 Lord William Bentinck (1828-35) declared as illegal the cruel practice of Sati. A law was passed against this practice and it was declared that any one who instigated, inspired or forced a woman to immolate as Sati would be punished by death. The Indian society will remain greatful to both Bentinck and the reformer Raja Rammohan Roy for this noble reform with strict orders and efforts.
How did the introduction of railways in India benefit the Indians ?
Although the British developed the railways for their own profit to export raw materials from India to England by ; joining the interior parts to the seaports by the railways; but afterwards, the development of railways for joining every important city and part with each other, became very advantageous for mutual trade and relations between the different states. All this promoted the trade links and economic benefits within Indian states and the railways played an important role in the development of the country.
II. Answer the following questions in 80-100 words :
What was the impact of English and Western Education in India ?
The impact of English and Western Education was visualized in many aspects of human life, rights and ways . of proper living. By this, the Indian people acknowledged the importance of human rights, nationalism, equality, power of unity. So, they realised the significance of independence and ultimately they prepared themselves for revolution to oppose the British rule. In the words of Lord Ronaldseay, “The wine of the western education went deep into the Indian head and they dived into the sea of nationalism and unity. It brought about a revolution in their outlook.” The Indian people came to know the worldwide affair e.g. European and American Revolutions and their expansion of knowledge made them to recognize the gravity of the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
What was the cultural impact of the British rule on India ?
Remarkable results had been witnessed of the cultural impact of the British rule on India. Widespread creation of the local literature and language of, different states took place. ‘Shanti Niketan’ of Rabindra Nath Tagore, scripts of National anthem and ‘Bande Matram’ were the important things of that time. Growth of modem science, recovery of India’s past including great Sanskrit literature in the form of Bhagwat Gita and Vedas, etc., were fruitful accomplishments to be honoured as great epics by the Indian people as well as by various foreign greatmen like Charles Wilkins and Max Mueller, etc.
What led to the rediscovery of India’s past ?
In the beginning the English administrators used to denounce every Indian thing and culture; but later on the Indians gained reasonal thoughts and tried to study and develop their early history and culture. For this some western scholars also came to help them. They gave the first great impetus to, the study of classics in India. Hence, valuable Sanskrit literature came in contact of Western people and the rich heritage of Sanskrit literature became of global interest as many Sanskrit texts were translated into English for the benefit of the west and India.
What was the impact of the British rule in the social field ?
During the British rule, many evil practices in the Indian society were abolished by strict rules; e.g. In 1829 Lord William Bentinck (1828-35) declared Sati system as illegal and cruel practice. He was assisted by Raja Ram Mohan Roy and saved many women from being burnt to death. Other reforms were the suppression of human sacrifice, child marriage, slavery, etc. On the other hand, some unpleasing things also took place e.g. undignified methods to spread Christianity, ill treatment for the Indians, taxation – of the lands belonging to temples and mosques. All this provoked the social reformers during later part of 19th century to reform the Indian society and religion; e.g. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, etc.
What was the impact of the British rule in the area of transport and communication ?
Under the British rule, remarl able progress was done in the field of transport and communication, through ; construction of railways, post and telegraph system, roads,canals and bridges, etc. First of all, the British used railways to transport and export raw materials from India to England and distribute the finished goods to large Indian market. Large amount of steel was imported from England for manufacturing railway engines, coaches, etc. However, the railways also played an important role for communicating the ideas within different states, which promoted political unity in the country. Later on, railways also helped the Indian trade and economical growth and prosperity. Today, the railways are the biggest port folio of the Indian Government.
III. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words :
- It was during the Governor-Generalship of Lord William Bentinck that it was decided to impart education in the English language.
- Munshi Prem Chand was a great Hindi story writer.
- Rabindra Nath Tagore won the Nobel Prize.
- The Sharda Act was passed by the efforts of Har Bilas Sharda.
- The Railways were introduced in India during the Governor-Generalship of Lord Dalhousie.
IV. Tick mark (S) the right statements.
- Lord Macaulay helped William Bentinck to introduce English in India.
- Rabindranath Tagore enriched the Punjabi language.
- Clive was the first man to learn Sanskrit.
- ‘Bande Mat ram’ was composed by Bankim Chandra.
- Post and telegraph department was set up in India by Lord William Bentinck.
A. Fill in the blanks.
- The three characteristics of ‘new thinking’ in England were rationalism, humanism and progress.
- The three groups of British officials who influenced and implemented administrative policies in India were consevatives, Imperialists and Radicals.
- The Charter Act of 1813, directed the English East India Company to spend 1 Lakh rupees on the education of Indians.
- Wood’s Despatch was a comprehensive plan for the education of Indians through the medium of English
- William Bentinck banned the evil practice of sati.
- Lord Dalhousie introduced the railway system in India in 1853.
B. Match the following.
C. Answer the following questions.
Explain the birth of new ideas and attitudes in England in the 18th and 19th centuries with reference to the following:
- Rationalism was an idea that rejected superstitions and blind faith. It encouraged scientific thinking and acceptance of scientifically tested truth.
- Humanism was an idea that promoted respect for all human beings. It emphasized the importance of love and concern for all human beings and their welfare.
- Progress was an idea which put forth that society was dynamic and not static. They believed that all societies must adapt themselves to suit the needs of the changing times.
Mention the basic difference between the conservatives and the imperialists.
Difference between the conservatives and the imperialists- Conservatives belived that Indian civilization was different from European civilization but not necessarily inferior.Imperialist were those Britishers who were highly critical of the Indian culture which they condemned as decadent, barbaric and state.
Who were the radicals? What was their solution to India’s social and cultural stagnation?
Radicals were a small group of Britisher’s inspired by the rational, humanistic and liberal thinking of the Western world. They were concerned about the backwardness of Indian society and the welfare of the people. They believed that Indian’s social and cultural stagnation could be transformed into a modern progressive country by introducing Western education and social reforms.
Mention five important socio-religious reforms introduced by the British.
Five important socio-religious reforms introduced by the British were :-
- Ban on sati
- Ban on Female infanticide
- Ban on Slavery
- Ban on Human sacrifice
- Widow Remarriage
When the Charter Act of 1813 was passed a great controversy arose on the issue of education.
- What was the controversy about?
- How was it resolved?
- The controvery was that one group favoured the promotion of traditional Indian learning through the medium of classical and regional languages like Sanskrit and Persian. This group was known as the Orientalists. The other group insisted that Western education should be introduced and imparted through the medium of English. This group was called Anglicists.
- In 1835 the government passed a resolution outlining its New Eduaction Policy. The government would utilize its educational funds on teaching Western science and literature through the medium of the English language.
What were the main motives behind the introduction of Western Education in India?
The motives behind the introduction of Western education in India.
- The primary motive of the British government was to create a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but British in taste, opinions, morals and intellect. The class of Indians could be employed, on low salaries, as clerks in the civil service. This would greatly reduce the heavy expenditure as employing the British in these posts was very expensive.
- Westernized Indians, it was hoped, would create a demand for British goods and promote the interests of British manufacturers.
- Western education would inculcate in the Indians a sense of admiration and respect for British rule. This would strengthen the foundations of the British empire in India.
How did the introduction and spread of Western education in India benefit the British?
The introduction and spread of Western education in India benefited the British like:
- The British system of education produced English-speaking Indian graduates who helped their British masters to run the empire.
- It also created a class of Indians who were Westernized to the extent that they rejected Indian culture and patronized anything and everything that was British including British goods.
The impact of Western ideas and education gave birth to a new awakening. Explain.
The Impact of Western ideas and education gave birth to a new awakening like.
- It aroused in them an awareness of titfe evil effects of foreign rule.
- The teachings.modem European philosophers instilled in them an admiration for democratic institutions.
- Knowledge of contemporary nationalist movements in Europe fired the Indians with an intense desire to build a new India progressive, strong, prosperous and united.
Why did the British develop transport and communication facilities in India?
The transport and communication system in India in the 18th century was very backward. The British realized the importance of developing proper communication facilities to consolidate their position in India and promote their industrial and commercial growth.
How did the improved communication system established by the British benefit the Indians?
The improved communication system established by the British benefited the Indians in unexpected ways. Besides stimulating trade and commerce it brought the people of India closer to one another and infused in them a sense of unity and nationalism which had far-reaching effects on Indian’s future.
D. State whether the following are true or false.
- Rationalism promoted blind faith.
Reason Rationalism rejected blind faith.
- The conservatives believed in gradual changes.
- The Charter Act of 1813 directed the Company to spent 1 lakh rupees on the education of Indians.
- Lord Macaulay insisted that Western education should be imparted through the medium of the vernacular languages.
Reason:- Lord Macaulay insisted that western education should be imparted through the medium of the English
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy supported Lord William Bentinck in his efforts to ban sati.
- The first railway line was from Bombay to Poona.
Reason The first railway line was from Bombay to Thana.
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