Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 5 The Sangam Age.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 5 The Sangam Age.
What is meant by the term ‘the Sangam Age’ ?
The Sangam Age refers to the period when bulk of Tamil literature was composed by a body of Tamil scholars and poets in three successive literary gatherings called Sangam.
Name the three kingdoms mentioned in the Sangam texts.
The three kingdoms mentioned in the Sangam texts were Pandyas, Cheras and Cholas.
Name the author of Tirukkural.
The author of Tirukkural was Tiruvalluvar.
Name the three sections into which the chapters of Tirukkhural are categorised.
- Aram (righteousness);
- Porul (wealth); and
- Inbam or Kamam (pleasure).
Aram and Inbam discuss about ethical living in private life while Porul deals with public affairs.
Name the four castes mentioned in the Tolkappiyam.
The Tolkappiyam has mentioned four castes, namely, Brahmanas, kings, traders and farmers.
Name the five divisions (tinais) mentioned in the Sangam literature.
Tamil land consisted of five physiographic division viz., kurinji (hilly backwoods), palai (parched zones), mullai (pastoral tract), marutam (wet land), and neital (littoral land).
Who were the Vellalas during the Sangam Age.
Vellalas were traders assigned with the duties of learning other than the Vedas, making gifts, agriculture, trade and worship.
Name the main crops grown during the Sangam Period.
The main crop grown during the Sangam Period was rice, while other crops included cotton, ragi, sugarcane, pepper, ginger, cardamom, turmeric, cinnamon and different varieties of fruits etc.
Name one center of cotton trade and the products exported to foreign countries during the Sangam Age.
Uraiyur was a great center of cotton trade.The products exported to foreign lands during the Sangam Age were pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon, turmeric, ivory products, pearls and precious stones.
Name any two ports of the Sangam Age.
Saliyur in the Pandya country and Bandar in Chera are among the most two important ports.
Name the author of Tolkappiyam.
The author of Tolkappiyam was Tolkappiar.
Name any three Epics mentioned in the Sangam literature.
Three Epics mentioned in the Sangam literature are Silappadikaram, Manimegalai and Sivaga Cindamani.
What was the theme of the Aham type of literature ?
Aham type of literature discuss about ethical living in private life.
In whose honour were the hero stones erected during the Sangam Age ?
In Sangam Age, memorial stones (Nadukal), were erected for the heroes who died for the common cause of their village, country and king.
Name one center of cotton trade mentioned in the Sangam literature.
Uraiyur was a great center of cotton trade.
Mention the two views held by scholars regarding the origin of the Dravidians.
Scholars hold various theories regarding the origin of the Dravidians. Some are of the view that they were foreigners, probably belonging to the Mediterranean race, who entered through the north-western passes and settled in India, about the beginning of the Neolithic Age. Other scholars believe that they were the original inhabitants of India.
Name the oldest language of South India.
Name the oldest Dravidian language.
What is known as Sangam literature?
The word ‘Sangam’ means ‘Assembly’. According to early tradition, three Sangams or Assemblies of literary men were held at Madurai, the center of great literary activity in the Tamil Country. It is generally accepted that these assemblies lasted from about first century BC to the fifth century AD. Many poets, scholars and bards who gathered there, produced a large volume of excellent Tamil poetry. These literary compositions were collected and complied into books called the Sangam literature.
Name any two literary sources to reconstruct history of the Sangam age.
There is no clear evidence regarding the literary works of the first Sangam. ‘Tolkappiyam’, written by Tolkappiyar, a disciple of Agastya, is a standard treatise on grammar and it belongs historically to the Second Sangam. Tiruvalluvar, the famous Tamil poet who attended the Third Sangam, wrote ‘Kural’. The literary works of the third Sangam constituted the most important part of the Sangam literature and they are the main source of information about the life and traditions of the Tamil people.
Who wrote ‘Kural’?
Name any two famous epics of Tamil literature.
‘Silappadikaram’ and Manimekalai’ are two famous epics of Tamil literature.
Mention any two archaelogical sources to reconstruct history of the Sangam age.
- The Megaliths.
- Inscriptions in the Brahmi script.
Why are graves of people in the megalithic phase in South India’s history called ‘Megalithis’?
The megalithic culture is mostly known for its burials. The unpland portions of the peninsula were inhabited by people, whose graves are called ‘megaliths’, because they were encircled by big pieces of stone.
How do Megaliths suggest that people of Southern India in those times had become familiar with iron?
The megaliths contain not only skeletons of people who were buried. Iron tools, arrows, pottery and fragments of rice and other grains have been found, besides the skeletons of the persons buried in these graves. Arrowheads, spearheads and sickles, all made of iron, do show the transition from Copper and Bronze Age Culture to the Iron Age.
How does the inscripition of Kharvela, the ruler of Kalinga, enable us to reconstruct history of the Sangam age?
The Inscription of Kharvela (the ruler of Kalinga) says he “destroyed a Confederacy of Tamil states (Tramirdesh Sanghatam).” The same Inscription records that Kharvela brought hundreds of pearls from Pandya kingdom to Kalinga. He also brought horses, elephants, jewels and rubies to his kingdom.
Hero-stone reminds us of an important event. What is the event?
Some Tamil poems affirm that there is only one God worthy of being worshipped. The God is the Hero-Stone recalling the fall of a brave warrior on the battle field. A stone was fixed at the place where some big warrior fell dead. Since he died, he became a martyr. Death in battle was held to lead the soldier straight to heaven. The hero-stone gave strength to the people in general and the soldiers in particular.
Mention any two Chera rulers whose names figure in the Sangam literature.
Udaiyanjeral (who flourished during the second century AD), Nedunjeral and Senguttuvan.
Who was the greatest among the earliest Chola kings?
Karikal was the greatest among their earliest Chola kings.
Why did Arundhati, a character in Sanskrit literature, become a model for South Indian Women in the Sangam age?
Arundhati, for instance, had become a model for women in the South, because she personified the ideal of Chastity.
Name the two deities worshipped by people in the Sangam age.
Vishnu and Murugan.
What did the Chera region produce in large quantities in the Sangam age?
The Chera region was well-known for its buffaloes, jack- fruit, papper and turmeric.
Name the two items of trade referred to in the Tamil literature of the Sangam age.
The Tamil literature refers to items of trade like spices, sandalwood, pearls, sea products, semi-precious stones and textiles of various types.
II. Structured Questions
With reference to the sources of information, give the significance of the following :
(c) Hero stones
(a) Tirukurral: It was written by Tiruvalluvar.lt consists of 1330 couplets, dealing with three main topics namely— Aram (Dharma), Porul (Artha) and Inbam (Kama). It is considered a sacred book by the Tamils and has been translated into many Indian and European languages.
(b) Megaliths — These are huge stones found at most of burial sites. A box-like structure was erected with the stone slabs, resting on each other without any mortar. Sometimes there was an opening cut into one of the sides, also known as memorial stones.
(c) Hero stones — The Tamil Sangam literature has many references to monuments raised in memory of such heroes. Hero stones were erected as part of the burial and this has been described by more than 25 Sangam poets.
2. With reference to the Sangam Age, answer the following questions :
State why the Sangam Age is so called ?
The Sangam Age is considered as a landmark in the history of South India. The word ‘Sangam’ is the Tamil form of the Sanskrit ‘Sangha’ which means an association. Thus, the Sangam Age refers to the period when bulk of Tamil literature was composed by a body of Tamil scholars and poets in three successive literary gatherings called Sangam. Hence, Sangam meaning confluence, refers to the gatherings of poets and bards.
Name the three kingdoms that existed during the Sangam Age.
Three kingdoms that existed during the Sangam Age were Pandyas, Cheras and Cholas.
Describe the achievements of Chera ruler, Senguttuvan ; and Chola ruler, Karikalan.
Achievements of Senguttuvan — Cheran Senguttuvan was the most popular king of the Sangam Cheras. The Sangam works, Padirruppattu and Ahananuru provide a lot of information about him. The Tamil Epic Silappadikaram also tells about his military achievements. Senguttuvan led an expedition up to the Himalayas. He crossed the river Ganges and defeated his enemies. He reached the Himalayas and hoisted the Chera flag. He brought stones from there and built a temple in memory of Kannagi.
Achievements of Karikalan — The most popular among the Sangam Cholas was Karikalan. Both the Sangam works, Pattinappalai and Porunaruatruppadi give information about Karikalan. Even in his young age, he proved his extraordinary ability of settling the disputes in his kingdom. He was a great warrior. He defeated the Chera and Pandya kings at Venni. In another battle Karikalan defeated a confederacy of nine princes. He extended his kingdom beyond Kanchipuram in the North.
Karikalan had also become popular for the development activities in his kingdom. He had encouraged the growth of agriculture as well as commerce. He had built the dam called Kallanai across the river Kavery to tame that river and the water was used for irrigation. Karikalan had also fortified the port-city Kaveripoompattinam or Puhar and made it as his capital. It flourished as a great emporium of trade. Merchants from foreign countries visited Puhar. Karikalan was generous towards Tamil poets and patronised them.
3. With reference to the society that existed during the Sangam Age, answer the following questions :
Explain briefly the functions of the four castes mentioned in the Tolkappiyam.
The Tolkappiyam has mentioned four castes, namely, Brahmanas, kings, traders and farmers.
The Brahmanas during the Sangam Age were a respectable and learned community. They performed their caste duties scrupulously. They served the king occasionally as judicial officers and always as priests and astrologers. They were attached to the land and were proud of their country and their mother tongue. Trade was common to both the Vaishyas and Vellalas. The Vaishyas were assigned the duties of learning, performing sacrifice, making gifts agriculture, protection of cows and trade. Vellalas were assigned the duties of learning other than the Vedas, making gifts, agriculture, trade and worship. So the two communities were known by the profession in which they were engaged for the time being.
Name the divisions of the Tamil land and the occupations associated with each one of them.
Tamil land consisted of five tinais or physiographical divisions viz., kurinji (hilly backwoods), palai (parched zones), mullai (pastoral tract), marutam (wet land), and neital (littoral Jand).
The occupations associated with each one of them were:
- The inhabitants of the hilly areas (kurinji) were hunters and gatherers..
- In the parched zone, (palai) the inhabitants lived by plunder and cattle lifting.
- In the pastoral tract (mullai), the inhabitants subsisted on shifting agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Wet land (marutam) was inhabited by people subsisting on plough agriculture.
- And finally, the littoral land (neital) was inhabited by those dependent on fishing and salt extraction.
Explain the position of women.
The status of women in Sangam society was not equal to that of men. The Sangam society consisted of different kinds of women. There were married women who had settled down as dutiful housewives. There were female ascetics belonging to Buddhist or Jain tradition like Kaundi Adigal and Manimegalai and also a large number of courtesans.
4. With reference to the economy during the Sangam Age, answer the following questions
What was the main occupation of the people and the activities associated with it ? What were the other occupations of the people ?
Agriculture was the main occupation. Next to agriculture, spinning and weaving were the most important and widely practiced crafts. Spinning and weaving of cotton, and of silk, had attained a high degree of perfection. Spinning was the part¬time occupation of women. The weaving of complex patterns on cloth and silk is often mentioned in literature and according to the Periplus. Uraiyur was a great center of cotton trade.Ship-building, metal working, carpentry, rope-making, ornament¬making, tanning and making of ivory products were widely practiced.
Explain the organisation of internal trade.
Internal trade was brisk, caravans of merchants with carts aid pack-animals carried their merchandise from place to place. Most of the trade was carried on by barter. Paddy constituted the most commonly accepted medium of exchange, specially in the rural areas. Salt was sold for paddy. Paddy was sold by mentioning its price in terms of salt. Honey and roots were exchanged for fish oil. Toddy, sugarcane and rice-flakes were exchanged for attack. There were established marked, called angadi in the bigger towns. Elsewhere, hawkers carried goods to the houses of the people.
Explain the extent and significance of external trade.
There was an extensive trade with foreign countries. According to the Sangam literature, the Tamil land had certain commodities which were in great demand in foreign markets. Those were pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon, turmeric, ivory products, pearls, precious stones. The main imports included horses, gold and glass.
The great port cities were the emporia of foreign trade. Big ships, entered the port of Puhar and poured out on the beach precious merchandise brought from overseas. The family life of the rich merchants of this city was carried on in the upper floors, while the lower ones were set apart for business. Saliyur in the Pandya country and Bandar in Chera are the most important ports.
There are many literary sources to reconstruct history of the Sangam age. In this context explain the literary importance of:
(c) Famous epics of Tamil literature
(a) Tirukurral: It was written by Tiruvalluvar. It consists of 1330 couplets, dealing with three main topics namely— Aram (Dharma), Porul (Artha) and Inbam (Kama). It is
considered a sacred book by the Tamils and has been translated into many Indian and European languages.
(b) Tolkappiyam : ‘Tolkappiyam’, written by Tolkappiyar, a disciple of Agastya, is standard treatise on grammar and it belongs historically to the Second Sangam.
(c) Famous epics of Tamil literature : ‘Silappadikaram’, ‘Manimekalai’ and ‘Jivakachintamani’ are three famous epics of Tamil literature. The first is regarded as the brightest gem of early Tamil literature. It deals with Kovalan’s love for his courtesan called Madhavi. The other epic ‘Manimekalai’ deals with the adventures of the daughter born of the union of Kovalan and Madhavi. The Epics throw light on the social and economic life of the Tamils upto about the sixth century AD.
How can the following helps us to reconstruct events of the Sangam age :
(b) Inscriptions found in Caves in the Madurai region
(a) Megaliths : The megalithic culture is mostly known for its burials. The unpland portions of the peninsula were inhabited by people, whose graves are called ‘megaliths’, because they were encircled by big pieces of stone.
(b) Nearly 80 inscriptions in the Brahmi script have been found in many caves in the Madurai region. These inscriptions belonged to the period (probably second century BC) when the Buddhist and the Jain preachers visited this region. They provide an example of the earliest kind of Tamil, an amazing mixture of two languages— Tamil and Prakrit.
Describe the social conditions that Sangam literature depicts with reference to :
(a) The Castes
(b) The Ruling Class and the Class of Warriors
(a) The Brahmins, the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas appear as regular castes or Vamas in the Sangam texts. An ideal king was one who never caused an injury to the Brahmins. Many Brahmins were celebrated poets, and as such they were handsomely rewarded by the rulers. Karikel is said to have, given one poet 1,600,000 gold coins, but we consider this comment exaggerated. Besides gold, the Brahmins got cash and land grants from the king and noble families.
(b) The ruling class was called ‘arasar’. The members of this class had marriage relations with the ‘vellalas’, the propertied people owning the bulk of the land. War body and income from trade and agricultural produce enabled the king to maintain professional warriors. The occasions for war were many. According to the Sangam poets, the refusal of one king to give his daughter in marriage to another was a frequent cause of war. In sangam poetry ‘heroes are glorified’ and wars and cattle raids very often mentioned.
Describe the social conditions that Sangam literature suggests with refference to :
(a) Institution of Marriage
(b) Religion and Religious rituals
(a) The ‘Tolkappiyam’, written by Tolkappiyar, states that marriage was an important religious ceremony, accompanied by many rituals. Naturally, the Aryan culture had now much impact on the institution of marriage. Earlier the Tamils had a relatively simple conception of marriage. They regarded it as “the natural coming together of men and women, mainly due to their physical difference.”
(b) In the early centuries of the Christian are the ruling class and upper sections of Tamil society had accepted Brahmanism. The kings used to perform vedic sacrifices. The Brahmins studied and chanted the Vedic hymns. There were disputations or public discussions on Vedanta and Vedic philosophy. The worship of Vishnu was gaining in popularity. But the chief deity of people of the hilly regions- was Murugan. Jainism also flourished during this period along with Buddhism. The two sects enjoyed royal patronage.Dead bodies had begun to be cremated, although the megalithic practice for the disposal of the body continued.
The Sangam literature gives a complete and true picture of economic conditions of the age. Describe economic life of the people with reference to :
(c) Occupational Guilds
(a) Agriculture was the main occupation of a large section of the people. Land was held by individuals as well as by the state. The land was fertile and there was plenty of grain, meat and fish. The Chola Country was watered by the river Kaveri. About this country there was a saying that “the space in which an elephant did lie down produced ” enough grain to feed seven persons.” The Chera region was well-known for its buffaloes, jack-fruit, pepper and turmeric. The rich did not plough the land themselves. They hired labourers, called pariyars, for this job. The pariyars belonged to the lowest social class and skinned dead animals also.
(b) The rulers had big income from trade transactions also. A large number of crafts and occupations are referred in Sangam literature. The epic ‘Manimekalai’ was written by a grain merchant of Madurai. The Tamil literature refers to items of trade like spices, sandalwood, pearls, sea products, semi-precious stones and textiles of various types. We also have the information that foreigners (yavanas) visited the coastal towns for trade. Metal lamps in different shapes and bottles of wine figure prominently among the articles of trade brought to India by the foreigners.
(c) Guilds had become an important institution in the economy of the Sangam age. The guilds defined rules of work and controlled the quality and prices of the finished product. The guilds also functioned as bankers and financiers. Guilds also carried out welfare activities and services of many kinds.
More Resources for Class 9 ICSE Solutions
- Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions (Morning Star)
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