ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Urbanization

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Urbanization

ICSE SolutionsSelina ICSE SolutionsML Aggarwal Solutions

ICSE Solutions Class 8 GeographyHistory & CivicsBiologyChemistryPhysicsMaths

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks

  1. Cities offer the migrant better education prospects for him or his children.
  2. Workers in cities get higher wages.
  3. Rural areas act as the push factor while urban areas are the pull factor.
  4. Satellite towns or cities are socially and economically independent, either completely or partially.
  5. In India, 60 cities have been selected as Smart Cities.

B. Match the following columns
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 4 Urbanization 1

Answer:

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 4 Urbanization 2

C. State whether the following are true or false

1. Rapid industrial growth in and around the city leads to lack of job opportunities.
Answer. False.
Rapid industrial growth in and around the city leads to plenty of job opportunities.

2. People in the urban areas have less access to health, educational, cultural and social services than in rural areas.
Answer. False.
People in the urban areas have greater access to health, educational, cultural and social services than in rural areas.

3. Slums are usually located on land not owned by the slum dwellers.
Answer. True.

4. Satellite towns/cities are connected to the metropolis by trains and motorways.
Answer. True.

5. Mumbai is one of the 20 cities selected as Smart Cities.
Answer. False.
Mumbai is not one of the 60 cities selected as Smart Cities.

D. Answer the following questions in brief

Question 1.
Define urbanization ?
Answer:
Urbanization is the process in which more and more people start to live and work in towns and cities rather than villages.

Question 2.
List any three factors responsible for the urbanization of a place.
Answer:
Factors responsible for the urbanization of a place are :

  1. Rapid industrial growth in and around cities provide plenty of job opportunities.
  2. Modern lifestyle and freedom from social practice like caste system in villages.
  3. Better medical facilities and health care services.
  4. Better education prospects for migrants and their children.
  5. Cities offer higher wages to workers.

Question 3.
Mention three ways in which the environment is affected as a result of increased urbanization.
Answer:
With the increase in urbanization, the environment is affected in many ways as :

  1. There is a steep rise in air pollution due to more factories and motor vehicles plying on the roads.
  2. The expansion of cities leads to the destruction of flora and fauna. Demand for more housing leads to deforestation and destruction of wetlands which drive away many birds and animals from their natural habitats.
  3. In many areas close to the sea, urbanization damages the ocean ecosystem.
  4. Destruction of green areas and increase in buildings leads to an increase in city temperatures.
  5. Rise in air pollution leads to respiratory diseases and allergies.

Question 4.
What are satellite cities ?
Answer:

  • Satellite cities : are smaller cities that come around larger cities but are independent of them. Its main objective is to relieve pressure from the main city. For example :
  • Main city : New Delhi — Satellite cities are Noida and Gurugram.
    Main city Mubai — Satellite cities are Thane and Navi Mumbai.

Question 5.
Briefly mention the aspects of urban life which serve as the basis for the smart cities.
Answer:
The different aspects of urban life which are normally the basis of smart cities are economy, environment, governance, human capital, international outreach, mobility and transportation, public management, social cohesion, technology, and urban planning.

Question 6.
What do you understand by Smart Cities ?
Answer:
Smart Cities : are urban regions that are highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. The main purpose of a smart city is to improve the quality of life of the people by using information technology (IT) and to push economic growth. For example : In India, 60 cities have been selected as — ‘Smart Cities’ under Smart Cities mission. It include Jaipur, Pune, Lucknow, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Raipur, Indore, Bhopal, Kochi, etc.

Question 7.
Mention any five smart cities of India.
Answer:
Smart Cities : Hyderabad, Vadodara, Kochi, Visakhapatnam, Guwahati, Raipur, Bilaspur, Durgapur, Indore, Gwalior, Rourkela, Jabalpur and Bhopal.

Question 8.
Mention the top ten smart cities in the world.
Answer:
The top 10 smart cities in the world (as in 2017)
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 4 Urbanization 3
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 4 Urbanization 4

E. Answer the following questions in detail

Question 1.
What are the positive impacts of urbanization ?
Answer:
Positive impacts of urbanization :

  1. There is development and expansion of essential services like clean water, electricity and transport in cities.
  2. People in urban areas have greater access to health, educational, cultural and social services than in rural areas.
  3. More schools, colleges, training centers and universities provide better prospects to the children of migrants.
  4. Urbanization creates harmony among people coming from different strata of society, allowing people of different castes, groups, languages and religions to live and work together, breaking down the social and cultural barriers.
  5. Urbanization allows people to acquire modern communication skills, knowledge of computers, smartphones, languages, etc which enable them to get jobs.
  6. Urbanization also provides people the opportunity to acquire training and work experience in hi-tech industries, enhancing their skills and facilitating them to migrate to other countries.

Question 2.
How does urbanization negatively impact the lives of people?
Answer:
Negative effects of urbanization :

  1. Migrants from village to cities end up being labourers and lead to the creation of slums.
  2. Slum owners can easily throw out the slum dwellers from their houses.
  3. Growth in slums puts extra pressure on essential utilities like clean drinking water, sanitation, electricity supply, etc.
  4. Overcrowding in slums lead to the outbreak of diseases such as malaria and dengue.
  5. unemployment increases as the number of people looking for jobs is more than jobs available.
  6. Unemployment and poverty force people to do crimes.
  7. With urbanization, environment is affected is many ways.
  • There is a steep rise in air pollution due to more factories and motor vehicles plying on the roads.
  • The expansion of cities leads to the destruction of flora and fauna. Demand for more housing leads to deforestation and destruction of wetlands which drive away many birds and animals from their natural habitats.
  • In many areas close to the sea, urbanization damages the ocean ecosystem.
  • Destruction of green areas and increase in buildings leads to an increase in city temperatures.
  • Rise in air pollution leads to respiratory diseases and allergies.

Question 3.
Briefly explain ways of reducing the negative impact of urbanization.
Answer:
Ways to reduce the negative impact of urbanization : There are various steps that the government can take to check and reduce the negative effects of urbanization.

  1. Sustainable and environment-friendly cities : The government should plan and provide environment-friendly cities with smart growth techniques and should pass laws to this effect. It is quite unhealthy for people to reside in unsafe and polluted areas. Therefore, the government should aim to build sustainable cities with improved environmental conditions and habitats which are safe and clean for people living in urban areas.
  2. Provision of essential services : The government at the local level must ensure,that all populations living within the urban areas have access to adequate essential services such as education, health, sanitation and clean water, technology, electricity and food. Jobs and earning opportunities must be provided so that people can earn a living and lead a good quality life. Subsidies should also be provided by the government so that the costs of basic healthcare, education, public transportation, communication systems, energy and technology can be reduced.
  3. More job creation : More employment opportunities should be created to lessen the negative impact of rapid urbanization. Private investments should be encouraged in order to effectively utilize natural resources and create more job opportunities. For example by exploiting natural resources optimally and promoting tourism, more job opportunities can be created for the urban population. In order to encourage job creation, subsidies and grants should be provided to foreign and private investment in environment-friendly development projects.
  4. Population control : The government at the local level in urban areas must provide medical health clinics and family planning centers to help reduce the high rates of population growth. Effective medical counselling and campaigns directed towards health care and hygiene and family planning options must be provided across the entire urban area with the sole purpose of controlling diseases and population growth.

Question 4.
Elaborate the features of a satellite city.
Answer:
Satellite cities are smaller cities close to a larger or main city but are independent of them. Some of the features of a satellite city are :

  1. It is smaller than the main city and is located nearby.
  2. Satellite towns or cities are socially and economically independent, either completely or partially.
  3. Being physically separated front the metropolis by a wide corridor of rural land or a green belt or even a river, satellite cities develop their own urbanized area in the course of time.
  4. Satellite towns or cities are connected to the metropolis by trains and motorways.
  5. Many satellite towns or cities do not encourage the setting up of high pollution generating industries and factories.
  6. Satellite towns and cities encourage development of small- scale industries such as dairy farms, cottage industries, handicraft industries, jam factories, etc.
  7. Satellite cities are mostly ‘bedroom communities’ or residential areas. People go to work in the main city and return to their homes in the satellite cities.
  8. Satellite cities set up the their own municipalities.
  9. Satellite cities have their own museums, art galleries, theatres and multiplexes.

Question 5.
What are the essential features of a Smart City ?
Answer:
Smart cities are urban regions that are highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure. The IT (information technology) is the core basis of providing essential services to all residents. Other essential infrastructure, apart from IT in a smart city, includes —

  1. proper sanitation and waste management systems
  2. round the clock electricity supply
  3. round the clock and adequate water supply
  4. efficient urban mobility and public transport with a network of good, well-connected roads
  5. well-designed and affordable housing which even people in the low-income brackets can buy
  6. good governance, particularly e-governance where everything and everyone is connected digitally
  7. sustainable environment with more than adequate green cover
  8. safety and security of women, children and the elderly
  9. quick and efficient functioning of law enforcement officials
  10. adequate health centers and nursing homes
  11. good schools equipped with the latest teaching aids and smart classes.

Question 6.
Why is there a need to build a Smart City ?
Answer:
The main purpose of a smart city is to improve the quality of life of the people by harnessing information technology and to push economic growth. Also, smart cities encourage area- based development by transforming existing areas, including slums, into better planned places so that people can live happily and comfortably. New areas are identified so that more people can be accommodated in the future.

F. Picture study
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 4 Urbanization 5
This is the picture of a smart city.

Question 1.
What is a smart city?
Answer:
A smart city is an urban region which is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.

Question 2.
Mention any three essential infrastructure requirement of a smart city.
Answer:
In a smart city, information technology (IT) is the core infrastructure and the basis of providing essential services to- all residents. Other essential infrastructure, apart from IT in a smart city, would include :

  1. Proper sanitation and waste management systems.
  2. Round the clock electricity supply.
  3. Round the clock and adequate water supply.
  4. Efficient urban mobility and public transport with a network of good, well-connected roads.
  5. Well-designed and affordable housing which even people in the low-income brackets can buy.
  6. Good governance, particularly e-governance where everything and everyone is connected digitally.
  7. Sustainable environment with more than adequate green cover.

G Map work
On an outline map of the world mark any ten smart cities of the world.
Answer:
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 4 Urbanization 6

Extra Questions

Question 1.
What are slums ? How do they effect the cities ?
Answer:
Slums are urban areas that are heavily populated with poor housing and living conditions. They have the following effect on cities :

  1. Since slums are usually located on land not owned by the slum dwellers, they can be easily evicted (thrown out) from their houses by the owners.
  2. Growth of slums in urban areas puts pressure on essential utilities such as clean drinking water, sanitation, power, etc.
  3. Overcrowding in slums lead to the outbreak of diseases such as malaria and dengue.
  4. Crimes begin to increase in slum areas due to unemployment and poverty. It makes difficult to enforce law and order in the city.

Question 2.
According to 2011 Census, what is the urban population of India ?
Answer:
According to Census 2011, 377.1 million people live in urban areas in India which is nearly 31 per cent of the country’s total population.

Question 3.
Give some examples of satellite cities in India.
Answer:
Main City :

  • New Delhi
  • Mumbai
  • Kolkata
  • Hyderabad
  • Pune

Satellite City :

  • Gurugram, Noida
  • Navi Mumbai, Thane
  • Rajarhat, Salt Lake City
  • Hi tech City
  • Pimpri- Chinchwad.

Question 4.
Give the names of few cities which have been selected under Smart Cities Mission in India ?
Answer:
In India 60 cities have been selected as ‘Smart Cities’ as part of the Smart Cities Mission. It includes Bhubaneswar, Jaipur, Surat, Pune, Lucknow, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Vadodara, Kochi, Visakhapatnam, Guwahati, Raipur, Bilaspur, Durgapur, Indore, Gwalior, Rourkela, Jabalpur and Bhopal.

5. Fill in the blanks

  1. In India 31% people live in urban areas.
  2. Thousands of youth having good knowledge of the English language are hired at call centers across the country.
  3. Urbanization provides people the opportunity to acquire training and work experience in hi-tech industries.
  4. Slums are urban areas that are heavily populated with poor housing and living conditions.
  5. Urbanization leads to creation of slums.
  6. Overcrowding in slums leads to the outbreak of diseases such as malaria and dengue.
  7. A rise in air pollution leads to rise in allergies and respiratory diseases.
  8. Satellite cities are mostly ‘bedroom communities’ or residential areas.
  9. Increase in the number of motor vehicles over the years has led to a huge increase in air pollution in New Delhi.
  10. In smart cities, information technology (IT) is the core infrastructure and the basis of providing essential services to all residents.
  11. In India 60 cities have already been selected as ‘Smart Cities’.
  12. Smart cities are urban regions that are highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure.
  13. Urbanization is the process in which more and more people j start to live and work in towns and cities rather than villages.

 

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Asia: Climate and Natural Vegetation

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Asia: Climate and Natural Vegetation

ICSE SolutionsSelina ICSE SolutionsML Aggarwal Solutions

ICSE Solutions Class 8 GeographyHistory & CivicsBiologyChemistryPhysicsMaths

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks

  1. A few regions of South-west Asia receive winter rainfall from the temperate cyclones that originate over the Mediterranean Sea. (tropical cyclones, temperate cyclones, north-east winds, south-east winds)
  2. The Mediterranean climate is ideally suited growing citrus fruits, (equatorial, warm temperate east coast, Mediterranean, tropical monsoon).
  3. The tropical rain forests of Asia are dense and impenetrable, (steppes, mangrove forests, monsoon forests, tropical rain forests)
  4. About one-third of the land area of Asia is covered with forest.
  5.  Thermal electricity is produced by burning coal and petroleum.

B. Match the following

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 8 Asia Climate and Natural Vegetation 1
Answer:

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 8 Asia Climate and Natural Vegetation 2

C. Answer the following questions in brief

Question 1.
When does most of Asia receive maximum rainfall ? Give a reason for your answer.
Answer:
Most of the Asia receives maximum rainfall in the months of April, May and June. In summers, most of Asia has an average temperature of about 32°C. The hot air over the land rises and creates an area of low pressure. There is high pressure in the surrounding seas and oceans. So there is movement of warm moisture-laden onshore winds which are called monsoons. These winds cause heavy rainfall.

Question 2.
Name any two countries that experience Mediterranean climate.
Answer:
Syria, Turkey, Lebanon and Israel experience Mediterranean climate.

Question 3.
Explain how the climate of the cold temperate regions of Asia has affected the :

  1. Vegetation
  2. Wildlife

Answer:

  1. Vegetation of the cold temperate regions of Asia — These regions experience long severe winters with heavy snowfall and very short, cool summers with light rainfall. So the natural vegetation has adapted very well to the climate. The evergreen softwood trees of the region are conical in shape and have needle-like leaves. They are called coniferous trees as they have cones in which they bear their seeds. The common tree species are pine, fir, spruce, larch and cedar. The forests are also called as taiga.
  2. Wildlife — Several small to medium sized animals such as the fox, sable, bear, mink, lynx and squirrel are found here which have fur over their bodies to protect them from cold weather.

Question 4.
Name some wildlife species found in the taiga region, the tundra region, and the tropical deciduous forests of Asia..
Answer:
Wildlife species found in the taiga region are fox, sable, bear, mink, lynx and squirrel. Wildlife species found in the tundra region of Asia are polar bears, reindeer, foxes, seals and walruses.
Wildlife species found in the tropical deciduous forests of Asia are rhinoceros, elephants, bears, deer, apes, lions, tigers, leopards, etc.

Question 5.
Trees cannot grow of survive in the regions beyond the Arctic Circle in Asia. Why ?
Answer:
Trees or forests cannot grow or survive in the regions beyond the Arctic Circle in Asia because this region has long severe winters and the frozen subsoil which do not permit the growth of trees and this region is, therefore, devoid of forests.

D. Answer the following questions in one or two paragraphs

Question 1.
Identify the main factors that affect the climate of Asia. Explain any two of them.
Answer:
The Main factors that affect the climate of Asia are :

  1. Size and latitudinal extent — Asia is the largest continent with a large east-west extent. Also, it stretches across the torrid, temperate and frigid heat zones of the earth.
  2. Distance from the sea — Many parts of Asia are far away from the maritime influence of the seas and oceans and experience extreme conditions and continental climate. Places closer to the’Coasts enjoy equable or maritime climate.
  3. Relief features — like mountain ranges of Asia extend in the east-west direction and form barriers to the moisture laden winds and the cold winds.
  4. Wind — Moisture bearing winds from the south and cold winds of the north affect the climate of the places.
  5. Ocean Currents — The cold Oya Siwo and the warm Kuro Siwo ocean currents affect the temperatures of the coastal regions of Japan.

Question 2.
Describe the climatic conditions in Asia from October to March.
Answer:
From October to March, Asia experiences winter season as the northern hemisphere receives the slanting rays of the sun because of the tilt of the earth’s axis. The temperature falls to 0°C and even below freezing point in many parts of the northern Asia. The air over the land is cold and heavy and sinks causing high pressure. The surrounding oceans and seas ! have higher temperature and lower pressure so the cold air
moves from land (high pressure) to sea (low pressure). These winds are dry and hence most of the Asia receives no winter rainfall except South-East Asia, Japan, South-Eastern India i and parts of Sri Lanka, where the same winds cross the seas
and pick up moisture. A few regions of South-West Asia receive winter rainfall from the temperate cyclones that originate over the Mediterranean Sea.

Question 3.
Write about the Mediterranean climate experienced in Asia.
Answer:
The Mediterranean Climate in Asia is characterized by warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters.
Since these areas experience drought-like conditions in summer, the natural vegetation has adapted to the climate by developing long roots and spongy barks. The evergreen vegetation of oak, acacia, laurel, chestnut, walnut and olive trees is common. Orchards of citrus fruits such as lemons, and oranges, vineyards and farm grains have replaced the natural vegetation. In the absence of natural habitat, not much wildlife is found. Mostly domesticated animals such as donkeys, cattle and sheep are found.

Question 4.
Describe each of these forests :

  1. Tropical deciduous
  2. Equatorial rainforest.

Answer:

1. Tropical deciduous forests — They are found in tropical monsoon climate. These areas have hot wet summers with heavy rainfall and cool dry winters. Tropical deciduous forests are also called as monsoon forests. They have hardwood, broad-leaved trees which shed their leaves, in the dry season, usually in winter. Teak, Sal, shisham and mango are the common tree species. These thrive in regions of heavy rainfall. Grasses and thorny bushes grow in drier regions. Elephants, rhinoceros, bear, deer, apes, lion tiger, leopard, etc are some of the wildlife species found here.
Such forests are found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Southern China.

2. Equatorial rainforest — Such forests are found in equatorial climate where the temperatures are high of about 28-30°C and rainfall occurs all year round. Such climatic conditions have resulted in dense, hardwood forests with broad-leaved tree species such as mahogany, ebony, rosewood, cinchona, coconut and rubber. There are lianas, creepers and climbers, tall grass, ferns and bamboos that grow between the tall trees, which makes the forests dense and impenetrable. The forests are dark and gloomy as very little sunlight reaches the ground owing to the tall trees whose branches spread out, forming a canopy. Mostly arboreal or tree-dwelling animals such as monkey, apes and colourful birds are found. Reptiles such as lizards, snakes, crocodiles and insects are found in the swampy floors of the forests. Large animals such as elephants and wild cats are only found in the outskirts as the forest interior is too dense.
Such forests are found in countries located close to the equator like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Southern Philippines.

Question 5.
How has modernization changed the natural vegetation of the Mediterranean and steppe regions ?
Answer:

  • Mediterranean region — Due to modernization, most of the natural vegetation has been replaced by grain farms, orchards of citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges and vineyards.
  • Steppes region (Temperate Grassland) —Vast areas of grasslands have been converted into rich farmlands that grow wheat, barley and other food grains.

Question 6.
How are forests useful to the people of Asia?
Answer:
About one-third of the land area of Asia is covered with forest. Some of these forests provide hardwood, bamboo, sandalwood and camphor. They also provide other valuable forest products such as lac, resin, turpentine, honey, medicinal plants and herbs. Natural rubber is obtained from the latex of the rubber tree. The evergreen rainforest of the equatorial region and the monsoon forests of the tropical regions of Asia are the chief sources of these products.
Softwood forests yield softwood for making paper, pulp, newsprint, matchsticks and synthetic fibers such as rayon. These are obtained from trees such as birch, pine, cedar and fir, which grow in the taiga or coniferous forests region of northern Asia, especially Siberia.

Question 7.
Give an account of the mineral resources of Asia.
Answer:
Asia has vast deposits of different types of minerals such as iron ore (India, Malaysia, China, Russia, Japan, the Philippines, North Korea), coal (China, India, Kazakhstan, Russia), bauxite (India, Indonesia, Russia), and petroleum (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Russia).

E. Map study
On an outline map of Asia, mark the following:

  • area affected by the monsoons
  • regions of equatorial climate
  • regions of Mediterranean climate
  • areas under the steppes

Answer:
(a) Area affected by the monsoons

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 8 Asia Climate and Natural Vegetation 3
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 8 Asia Climate and Natural Vegetation 4

F. Picture study

Question 1.
Identify the animal seen in the photograph.
Answer:
Yak

Question 2.
In which climatic region of Asia can you find this animal ?
Answer:
Temperate or mid-latitude Desert region of Asia.

Extra Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on summer conditions in Asia.
Answer:
From April to June, the sun rays fall directly over the northern hemisphere. In June, it shines overhead the Tropic of Cancer, so most of the continent of Asia, except the extreme northern parts beyond the Arctic Circle is warm with an average temperature of 32°C. Most of the Asia receives maximum rainfall in these months.

Question 2.
Why is Siberia so sparsely populated ?
Answer:
Siberia is sparsely populated as the climate here is very cold. Winters are long and severe with heavy snowfall which the summers are short and cool.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the tropical or hot desert climate and the natural vegetation and wildlife found there.
Answer:
Tropical or hot desert climate prevails in Arabia, Iran and the Thar desert in India and Pakistan. These regions experience very hot dry summers and very cold winters. The daily and annual ranges of temperature are very high and the areas receive less than 25 cm of rainfall annually.
As climatic conditions are harsh, vegetation is scarce and only thorny bushes, shrubs, cacti and clumps of dry grasses are found scattered in the region which is largely bare and devoid of vegetation. Date palms are found in the oases. Camels, horses, mules, gazelles, insects and lizards are some of the wildlife species found in the deserts.

Question 4.
What type of climate do China, Japan and Korea experience?
Answer:
China, Japan and Korea experiences warm temperate eastern margin or China type climate. It is similar to monsoon type except that the winters are colder. Snowfall occurs in winters while rainfall occurs in summer.

Question 5.
Which is the most common domesticated animal in Tibet ? What kind of climate is found in the Plateau of Tibet and the Gobi Desert ?
Answer:
Yak is the most common domesticated animal in Tibet. Temperate (or mid-latitude) desert climate is found in the Plateau of Tibet and the Gobi Desert. Very little rainfall, very cold winters with temperatures below the freezing point and very hot summers is found.

Question 6.
What increases the commercial value of forests in cool temperature eastern margin climate ?
Answer:
Oak, beech, maple and birch are the main trees and their occurrence in almost pure stands and predominance of only a handful of species greatly increase the commercial value of these forests.

Question 7.
List the major types of climate of Asia.
Answer:
The major types of climate of Asia are :

  1. Equatorial climate
  2. Tropical monsoon climate.
  3. Tropical or hot desert climate. .
  4. Warm temperate eastern margin or China type climate.
  5. Temperate or mid-latitude desert climate.
  6. Mediterranean climate
  7. Cool temperate eastern margin climate
  8. Temperate grassland or steppe climate
  9. Cold temperate or taiga climate
  10. Arctic or tundra climate.

Question 8.
What are the different types of vegetation found in varied climatic conditions of Asia ?
Answer:
The different types of vegetation in Asian climate include dense evergreen hardwood forests, tropical deciduous forest, thorny bushes, coarse short grasses, evergreen softwood trees and mosses and lichens.

9. Fill in the blanks.

  1. The areas away from the coasts experience continental (extreme), climate while places closer to the coasts experience maritime (equable) climate.
  2. World’s highest surface temperature of 71°C has been recorded in Dasht-eLut in Iran.
  3. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the heaviest rainfall in the world.
  4. Verkhoyansk in Russia is the coldest region in Asia with an average temperature of-51 °C. ’
  5. Most of the Asia receives no rainfall in winter.
  6. Convectional rainfall occurs almost daily around 4 o’ clock in equatorial climate region of Asia.
  7. Latex is the milky sap of rubber tree which is collected and used to make rubber for commercial purposes.
  8. The equatorial (tropical) rainforests are different from the rainforests of the Amazon and Zaire basins because of their nearness to the sea.
  9. India has tropical monsoon climate and tropical deciduous (monsoon) forests.
  10. Date palms are found in the Oases in hot deserts.
  11. The Gobi Desert stretches across large parts of Mongolia and China.
  12. Yak is one of the most commonly domesticated animals in the temperature desert regions of Asia.
  13. The two-humped Bactrian camel is a well-known animal of temperate grassland or steppe.
  14. The temperate grassland region of Central Asia is called steppe.
  15. The forests of the cold temperate regions, have coniferous trees with needle like leaves.
  16. The coniferous forests in cold temperate climate are called as Taiga.
  17. The treeless plains in the Arctic climate are called Tundra.

Map Skills
On a physical map of Asia, show the different types of climate and natural vegetation
Answer:

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 8 Asia Climate and Natural Vegetation 5

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Population

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Population

ICSE SolutionsSelina ICSE SolutionsML Aggarwal Solutions

ICSE Solutions Class 8 GeographyHistory & CivicsBiologyChemistryPhysicsMaths

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks

  1. China has the largest population in the world.
  2. Death rate is number of deaths per year per 1,000 of the population.
  3. Life expectancy is the number of years that a person is likely to live.
  4. Urban areas generally have a higher population density.
  5. A population pyramid is a diagram that shows the age and sex composition of a population.

B. Choose the correct answer 

1. Which continent has the highest population ?

  1. Asia
  2. Europe
  3. North America
  4. South America

2. Which of these is an adverse effect of over population ?

  1. Environmental degradation
  2. Poverty
  3. Unemployment
  4. All of these.

3. Which of these is not a positive effect of under population?

  1. Adequate employment
  2. fewer taxpayers
  3. Lesser environmental degradation
  4. Lower levels of poverty

4. Which of these is a part of the demographic structure of a population ?

  1. Age composition
  2. Sex ratio
  3. Rural and urban populations
  4. All of these

5. Which type of population is shown in a bell-shaped population pyramid ?

  1. Expanding population
  2. Declining population
  3. Constant population
  4. None of these

C. State whether the following are true or false 

1. In 2016 alone, the population of the world increased by more than 80 million.
Answer. True.

2. Immigration is a factor that can cause overpopulation.
Answer. True.

3. In rural areas, people are typically engaged in secondary activities.
Answer. False. In rural areas, people are typically engaged in primary activities.

4. An adverse sex ratio shows the high position given to women in society.
Answer. False.
An adverse sex ratio shows the low position given to women in society.

5. In a population pyramid, the youngest age group is shown at the bottom.
Answer. True.

D. Answer the following questions in brief

Question 1.
Define the term ‘population’.
Answer:
The term ‘population’ refers to all the people who live in a particular area, city or country.

Question 2.
Define population density.
Answer:
Population density refers to the number of people living in a unit area of space, such as a square kilometre.

Question 3.
Distinguish between immigration and emigration.
Answer:
Immigration is the process of coming to live permanently in another country that is not one’s own.
Emigration is the process of leaving one country to go and live permanently in another country.

Question 4.
Write any two causes of overpopulation ?
Answer:
Causes of overpopulation are :

  1. Immigration – When people come from another country.
  2. Increased birth rate – due to better medical facilities
  3. Decreased death rate – due to better medical facilities.
  4. Better medical facilities
  5. Lack of family planning.

Question 5.
Mention any two factors that cause population growth in a developed country.
Answer:
In the developed countries of the world, the population increased earlier due to :

  1. Economic growth and prosperity as a result of industrialization.
  2. Improved medical techniques and health care facilities.
  3. Immigration because of better job opportunities and better living conditions.

Question 6.
Mention any two factors that cause population growth in a developing country.
Answer:
In developing countries of the world, rapid increase in population was due to :

  1. Modern medical techniques which increased the lifespan of the people.
  2. Ignorance of the masses.
  3. Traditional beliefs, customs and outlook of people.

Question 7.
What do the rural and urban population consist of ?
Answer:
The rural population consists of the people residing in villages.
The urban population consists of the people living in towns and cities.

Question 8.
What do you understand by the term ‘working population’?
Answer:
The section of the population between 14 – 60 years of age is
considered to be the working population. They are willing and eligible to work and considered an asset for a country as it means high availability of labour for the development of the nation.

 

E. Answer the following questions in one or two paragraphs:

Question 1.
Write a note on the distribution of population in the world.
Answer:
At present, the population of the world stands at 7.35 billion. China has the largest population in the world with over 1.3 billion people, followed by India, with over 1.2 billion people, the USA with over 321 million people and Indonesia with over 257 million people. Island nations of the Pacific Ocean have populations of just a few thousand.
Continent-wise, Asia has the largest population with over 4.4 billion people, followed by Africa with 1.18 billion people. Europe has over 738 million people, North America has over 573 million people, South America has over 418 million people and Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Samoa, etc) has over 3’9 million people)

Question 2.
Briefly explain any four factors that affect the population of a place.
Answer:
The are various factors that affect the population of a place such as birth rate, death rate, immigration, emigration, influx of refugees, agricultural development, urbanization, education, topography and climate of a place, employment opportunities, etc,
In developed countries, due to improvements in medical facilities, the death rates have reduced and the lifespan of the people have increased resulting in increase in population.

Question 3.
What is the impact of overpopulation ?
Answer:
Impact of Overpopulation :

  1. Adverse effect on the environment : Higher population consumes more natural resources like fresh water, arable land and mineral resources. This leads to deforestation, scarcity of water, extinction of plants and animals, depletion of fossil fuels, pollution, global warming.
  2. Adverse effect on economy : Higher population leads to unemployment, overcrowding, shortage of food, fuel, minerals and other resources. This leads to poor quality of education, low per capita income, inflation, less productivity and slow economic growth of the country.
  3. Poor quality of life : There is not enough affordable food, shelter and education. People live in congested areas with poor sanitary conditions leading to spread of diseases, poverty and rise in crime rate.

Question 4.
Write the positive as well as negative effects of under population.
Answer:
Impace of Under population
Under population has several positive effects :

  1. There are sufficient employment opportunities for everyone.
  2. There are fewer instances of overcrowding.
  3. There are lower levels of poverty.
  4. There are adequate educational, medical and other facilities to meet everyone’s needs.
  5. There are sufficient natural resources to meet the requirements of the population.
  6. There is lesser pressure on the environment, and hence, lower rates of environmental degradation.

However, there are also some negative effects of under population :

  1. The lack of adequate labour leads to low productivity.
  2. In some instances, a higher proportion of the population is either too young or too old to work.
  3. There are lesser taxpayers, leading to low income for the government.
  4. There are not enough people to develop the natural resources of the country.

Question 5.
Write the main differences between rural and urban populations.
Answer:
Rural Population

  1. It refers to people living in villages.
  2. The population density in rural areas is low.
  3. The people do primary activities like farming, fishing, mining etc.
  4. The educational and medical facilities are not very highly developed.
  5. Poor standards of transport and communication there.
  6. Village communities are usually closely-knit with strong emphasis on culture and traditions.

Urban Population

  1. It refers to people living in towns and cities.
  2. The population density in urban areas is generally high.
  3. The people do secondary and tertiary activities like trade, transport, services, etc.
  4. The educational and medical facilities are highly developed.
  5. Better standards of transport and communication.
  6. The socio-cultural ties between people in cities are not as strong as in villages.

Question 6.
What is sex ratio ? What is the meaning of favourable and unfavourable sex ratios ?
Answer:
Sex-ratio means the number of females per 1000 males in a given population. In India, sex ratio is calculated in terms of females per 1000 males. The formula to calculate the sex
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 1
The sex ratio is an important characteristic that helps us to study the population of a given area. For example, when we say that the sex ratio in India is 940, it means that there are 940 girls for every 1000 boys.
Favourable sex ratio: The sex ratio is considered favourable if there is an equal or higher number of females per 1000 males in the population. For example, Latvia in Europe has the highest sex ratio with 1179 females for every 1000 males.
Unfavourable sex ratio : An unfavourable sex ratio means that there is a lower number of females per 1000 males in the population. Practices like female foeticide (killing of girls in the womb), female infanticide (killing of girls when they are babies) and domestic violence towards women due to gender discrimination lead to unfavourable sex ratio. For examples, countries like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, China and Saudi Arabia have low sex ratio.

G Picture study.

Question 1.
What does the picture tell us?
Answer:
A crowded street in Mumbai, India’s most populous city.

Question 2.
Mention any three impacts of such a condition.
Answer:
Overpopulation usually has an adverse effect on the environment, the economy and the quality of life that people lead. A larger population consumes more natural resources
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 2
such as fresh water, arable land and mineral resources. As more land is brought under cultivation, the amount of land under forests keeps reducing, impacting the diverse animal and plant populations in these forests. Increases mining for minerals causes further environmental damage. As more factories are set up to meet the needs of the people, more fossil fuels are used and more pollutants are released into the environment.

G Map work. On an outline map of the world mark the top five populous countries of the world.
Answer:

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 3

Extra questions

Question 1.
Define the following —

  1. Birth rate
  2. Death rate
  3. Life expectancy
  4. Family planning
  5. Demography
  6. Overpopulation

Answer:

  1. Birth rate — It is the number of live births per year per 1000 of the population. The formula for calculating birth rate is
    ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 4
  2. Death rate — It is the number of deaths per year per 1000 of the population. It is calculated as :
    ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 5
  3. Life expectancy — It is the number of years that a person is likely to live. It is calculated as the average life span of a population.
  4. Family planning — It is the process of controlling the number of children that a person has and the intervals between their births.
  5. Demography — It refers to the study of population of a place especially of humans, based on physical, socio-cultural and economic factors such as age and sex, language, religion, economic status, literacy, marital status, etc.
  6. Overpopulation — It is an undesirable condition where the number of people in a given area exceeds the availability of resources to meet the needs of all the people. In an over-populated environment, the number of people might be more than the available essential materials for survival like food, clothes, water, shelter, transport, etc.
  7. Under population — It is a condition where the number of people living in a given area is less in relation to the available resources of a country. This happens when there are not enough people to make full use of resources such as land, water, forests and the available technology.
  8. Population pyramid — It is specially designed diagram that shows the age and sex composition of a population. It is also called as age-sex pyramid.

Question 2.
List few countries with high population density (over population) and few with low population density (under population) ?
Answer:
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 6

Question 3.
Mention the causes of underpopulation ?
Answer:
Causes of underpopulation are :

  1. Increase in the death rate due to natural disaster like earthquake, Tsunami, flood or man-made disasters such as war.
  2. Decrease in birth rate due to genetic reasons.
  3. Infertility in the people
  4. Emigration – people moving out of a country.

Question 4.
What do you mean by composition of population or demographic structure? What is its significance? Name any two characteristics of a population.
Answer:
Population composition or demographic structure: Refers to the physical, sociocultural and economic attributes of the population such as age and sex, place of residence, language, religion, martial status, literacy, etc.
Significance: The characteristics of population composition are measurable and help in distinguishing one group from another.
Two Characteristics of a population are :

  1. Rural and Urban Composition: This is on the basis of where a person resides. Rural refers to villages and urban refers to cities and towns.
  2. Age and sex Composition : It refers to the percentage of people in different age groups in a given population and sex ratio (number of females per 1000 males in a population).

Question 5.
What do you understand by age composition of a population ?
Answer:
Age composition refers to the percentage of people in different age groups in a given population. It differs from country to country. It can be working population (people between 14-60 years of age) or dependent population (below 14 and above 60 years of age).

Question 6.
What is the working population of India ?
Answer:
62.5 per cent of the population of India is working population. 29.5 % is in the age group of 0-14 years while 8 % is above 60 years of age.

Question 7.
What leads to unfavourable sex ratio at some places ? Name few social practices leading to it ?
Answer:
Gender discrimination is the major cause of unfavourable sex ratio which gives women a lower status in society. Few social practices leading to unfavourable sex ratio are :

  1. Female Foeticide
  2. Female infanticide
  3. Domestic violence.

Question 8.
Name one scheme launched by the government of India that works towards generating awareness and improving the efficiency of welfare services meant for women in the country.
Answer:
Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save girl child, educate girl child).

Question 9.
What is the most effective way to show the age and sex structure of a population ?
Answer:
Population pyramid or Age-sex Pyramid.

Question 10.
Explain the diagram of a population pyramid. Also show the three types of pyramids.
Answer:
The diagram of a population pyramid consists of bars arranged in the form of a pyramid. The bars show different age groups, with the males on the left and females on the right. The base represents the youngest age group and the top represents the oldest. The shape of the population pyramid shows the characteristics of the population. The three types of pyramid are :

  1. Expanding population : In this case, the age-sex pyramid is more or less triangular with a broad base and a narrow top. The broad base shows large population of young people which indicates high birth rate. The narrow top shows high death rate in the older age group. Such a pyramid indicates rapid population growth. For example, countries like Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Nigeria have such a population pyramid.
  2. Constant Population : The shape of the pyramid is like a bell, with the narrow top and a broad middle for several bars. This shows that the birth rate is almost equal to the death rate, leading to a constant population with the percentage of males and females remaining almost the same. Usually, developed countries such as the USA have this kind of a pyramid.
  3. Declining Population : Such a pyramid has a narrow base, a bulging middle that indicates low birth rate and death rates and a slightly narrow apex. Countries like Japan, Germany and Italy have this kind of a pyramid.
    ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 2 Population 7

Question 11.
Why is it important to study the population ?
Answer:
Studying the population helps us to understand how it shapes the world in different ways. Controlling the population correctly is an important task for the government. It plays a big role in the development of a country.

12. Fill in the blanks

  1. Population refers to all the people who live in a particular area.
  2. At present, the population of the world stand at 7.35 billion.
  3. Second most populated country in the world is India.
  4. Continent-wise, Asia has the largest population, followed by Africa
  5. India’s most populous city is Mumbai.
  6. Population Density refers to the number of people living in a unit area of space.
  7. In Overpopulation condition, the number of people in a particular area is more than the available resources.
  8. Under population puts less pressure on the environment.
  9. Sex ratio of 940 means there are 940 girls for every 1000 boys.
  10. The sex ratio is usually unfavourable in those countries where gender discrimination is widespread.
  11. The average sex ratio in the world is 982 females to every 1000 males.
  12. Latvia in Europe has the highest sex ratio with 1179 females for every 1000 males.
  13. Triangular shaped population pyramid indicates rapid population growth.
  14. Not being able to have babies or produce young ones is called infertility.
  15. In India 69 % population is rural and 31 % urban.

 

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – India: Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – India: Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features

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Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks

  1. There are seven union territories in India.
  2. The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two halves.
  3. The Himalayas literally means abode of snow.
  4. The Lakshadweep Islands have been formed by the growth of corals.

B. Identify who I am

  1. A river that divides the Peninsular Plateau of India into the Malwa and the Deccan plateaux : Narmada.
  2. A vast sandy low-lying plain in north-west Rajasthan : The Thar Desert.
  3. Barren Island is the only volcanically active island of India.
  4. The longest river of south India : Godavari.

C. Distinguish between each of the following pairs

Question 1.
The Eastern and the Western Ghats
Answer:
Western Ghats :

  1. They extend from the mouth of river Tapi to Kan niyakumari.
  2. The average height is 1,200 m but in some parts it rises to 2,440 m.
  3. They are continuous.
  4. They are the source of rivers that flow across the Deccan.
  5. They are steep and rugged, and rise abruptly from the arrow Western Coastal Plains.
  6. They lie close to the Arabian Sea.

Eastern Ghats :

  1. They extend from the Mahanadi Valley up to the Nilgiri Hills.
  2. The average height is 450 m, rarely exceeding 1,200 m.
  3. They are not continuous. Many rivers flow through them.
  4. They have gentle slopes that rise from the Eastern Coastal Plains.
  5. They lie at some distance from the Bay of Bengal.

Question 2.
The Eastern and the Western Coastal Plains
Answer:
Western Coastal Plains :

  1. They stretch from Kachchh in the north to Kanniya-kumari in the south.
  2. They lie between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
  3. They are narrower than the Eastern Coastal Plains.
  4. They do not have deltas, only estuaries and lagoons.
  5. They have different names in different parts—they are known as the Konkan Coast in Maharashtra, The Kanara Coast in Karnataka and the Malabar Coast The Kerala.
  6. They lie in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa. Karnataka, and Kerala.
  7. Their important ports are Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Mangalore, and Kochi.

Eastern Coastal Plains :

  1. They stretch from the mouth of the river Ganga in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south.
  2. They lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal.
  3. They are wider than the Western Coastal Plains.
  4. They are composed of the deltas of all the majorrlvers of the Deccan.
  5. They have different names in different parts—they are known as the Northern Circars in the region north of the river Godavari and the Coromandel Coast in the region south of the river Godavari.
  6. They lie in the states of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  7. Their important ports are Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip, Chennai, and Tuticorin.

Question 3.
The Himalayan and peninsular rivers
Answer:
The Himalayan Rivers :

  1. They are also called as North Indian Rivers.
  2. The three important rivers are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra.
  3. They are longer and slow moving.
  4. They are snow fed and hence perennial.
  5. These rivers are navigable.
  6. These rivers are more suitable for irrigation.

The Peninsular Rivers :

  1. They are also called as South Indian Rivers.
  2. The six important rivers are the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, the Narmada and the Tapi.
  3. They are shorter and fast flowing.
  4. They are rain-fed and not always perennial.
  5. These rivers are not navigable.
  6. These rivers are less suitable for irrigation.

Question 4.
The east and the west-flowing rivers of south India.
Answer:
The east-flowing rivers of South India :

  1. The main rivers are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
  2. These rivers drain into the Bay of Bengal.
  3. These rivers make deltas at their mouth.
  4. These rivers have large- amount of water.
  5. These rivers originate from the western Ghats and flow eastwards.

The West-flowing rivers of South India :

  1. The main rivers are Narmada and Tapi.
  2. These rivers drain in the Arabian Sea.
  3. These rivers do not make deltas.
  4. These rivers have less amount of water.
  5. These rivers originate in Central India and flow westwards.

D. Answer the following questions in brief

Question 1.
Do you think it is right to use the term ‘subcontinent’ for India and its neighbouring countries ?
Answer:
Yes, it is right to use the term ‘subcontinent’ for India and its neighbouring countries because although they are a part of Asia, they have developed their own distinct physical and cultural identity. This is due to the presence of protective barrier of the Himalayas which isolates these countries from the rest. of Asia.

Question 2.
How many states and union territories does India have ?
Answer:
India has 29 states and 7 union territories.

Question 3.
What do you know about the Purvanchal ranges ?
Answer:
The hills of the north-east India are collectively called the Purvanchal ranges. They lie along the eastern borders of India. Their average elevation is less than 3,000 m. They consist of several hill ranges such as Patkai Bum, Naga, Mizo, Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills.

Question 4.
Name the three divisions of the Great Northern Plains and the rivers responsible for their formation.
Answer:
The three divisions of the Great Northern Plains are :

  1. The Ganga Plains in the centre : They are formed by the alluvial deposits of the river Ganga and its tributaries such as Yamuna, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Chambal, Betwa and the Son. It is in U.P., Bihar and West Bengal.
  2. The Punjab Plains in the West : They are formed by the alluvial deposits of the tributaries of the rivers Indus — The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum. It is in Punjab and Haryana.
  3. The Brahmaputra Valley in the East: It is formed by the Brahmaputra River. It lies in Assam.

E. Answer the following questions in one or two paragraph:

Question 1.
Explain how India has benefited from its location.
Answer:
The location of India has helped in the development of trade and commerce. The existence of seas on three sides has encouraged international trade. From ancient times, India has had political, economic and cultural links with other countries. Today, India provides a link between the East and the West world. Its central position between the two world has helped the development of its own industries and trade.

Question 2.
Explain how the Himalayas have greatly influenced the life of the people of India.
Answer:
The Himalayas exert a significant influence on the life of the people of India in several ways.

  • They form a natural boundary between India and China.
  • They serve as a climatic barrier by preventing the entry of the cold winds from Central Asia and preventing the rain¬bearing monsoon winds from leaving India.
  • They are a source of perennial rivers such as the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
  • Their rugged terrain is ideal for hydroelectric power generation.
  • The mountain slopes are forested. These forests provide different types of timber and forest products.
  • The Himalayas have beautiful hill Stations Shimla, Darjeeling, Mussorie, etc.

Question 3.
Explain why the Great Northern Plains are densely populated.
Answer:
The Great Northern Plains are densely populated because of the following reasons

  1. The fertile soil of the plains has helped in the development of agriculture.
  2. Its soft soil has made irrigation possible.
  3. Their flatness has promoted growth and development of a dense network of road and rail transport.
  4. Their rivers and tributaries provide cheap water transport.

Question 4.
Describe the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Lakshadweep Islands.
Answer:
There are two Island groups of India :

  1. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands — They lie in the Bay of Bengal. They are about 550 in number and are of volcanic origin. Barren Island is the only volcanically active island. They are separated by a wide channel called the Ten Degree channel.
  2. The Lakshadweep Islands — They lie in the Arabian Sea. They have been formed by the growth of corals and are fewer in number than the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Many of them are uninhabited. These islands form the smallest union territory of India.

F. Picture study.
ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 9 India Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features 1
This is a photograph of the river Ganga.

Question 1.
Which are the states through which this river flows?
Answer:
The river Ganga, which is about 2,510 km long, flows through four states of India – Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.

Question 2.
Name any two left-bank tributaries of the river.
Answer:
Its left bank tributaries rise from the glaciers in the Himalayas. The Ramganga, the Gomti, The Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi are the main left bank tributaries.

G Map work
Mark and label each of the following in an outline map of India

  1. The Tropic of Cancer
  2. The neighbouring countries of India
  3. The Palk Strait
  4. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

Answer:

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 9 India Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features 2

Extra Questions

Question 1.
Describe the location of India.
Answer:
India lies entirely in the northern and eastern hemispheres. It extends from 8°4’N to 37°6’N latitudes and 68°7’E to 97°25 ‘E longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two parts by passing through it. The approximate area is 3.3 million sq km. The Himalayas separate it from the rest of Asia. It has many neighbouring countries with whom it makes a subcontinent. South of the Tropic of Cancer lies peninsular India-triangular mass of land projecting into the Indian Ocean. It is surrounded by water on three sides. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the India Ocean in the south. The central position of India between the East and the West world has helped in the development of trade and commerce.
India at a Glance
Latitudinal extent: 8°4′ N – 37°6’ N
Longitudinal extent: 68°7’E – 97°25’E
Area : 32, 87, 263 sq. km
North-south extent: 3,214 km
East-west distance : 2,933 km
Length of land frontier : 15,200 km
Length of coastline : 7,500 km
Number of states : 29
Number of union territories : 7
Capital: New Delhi
Total population (According to 2011 Census) : 1.21 billion
Average population density : 382 persons per sq km

Question 2.
Name the countries that form India subcontinent.
Answer:
India, Pakistan, Nepal Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka form the Indian subcontinent.

Question 3.
What is the percentage of urban and rural population in India ?
Answer:
Percentage of urban population in India – 31%
Percentage of rural population in India – 69%

Question 4.
What is taken as the standard meridian for India and why?
Answer:
The 82 ×/2 °E longitude passing through Allahabad is taken as the standard meridian for India because it lies in the middle of the long east-west extent of India. For every 1° of longitude, there is a difference of 4 minutes. So there is a difference of two hours in the local time of Gujarat in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east. To avoid confusion and have a uniform time in the entire country, standard meridian has been formed.

Question 5.
Name the neighbouring countries of India.
Answer:
Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Bhutan, island country of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

Question 6.
What separates India from Sri Lanka ?
Answer:
Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Question 7.
Name the three water bodies which surround the India Peninsular.
Answer:

  1. The Arabian Sea in the west
  2. The Bay of Bengal in the east
  3. The Indian Ocean in the south.

Question 8.
On what basis were the states of India reorganised after independence ? Name the states and union territories of India along with their capitals. (Political divisions).
Answer:
The states were re-organised on the basis of language after independence. There are 29 states and 7 union territories of India at present.

StateCapital
1.       Andhra Pradesh

2.       Arunachal Pradesh

3.       Assam

4.       Bihar

5.       Chhattisgarh

6.       Goa

7.       Gujarat

8.       Haryana

9.       Himachal Pradesh

10.   Jammu and Kashmir

11.   Jharkhand

12.   Karnataka

13.   Kerala

14.   Madhya Pradesh

15.   Maharashtra

16.   Manipur

17.   Meghalaya

18.   Mizoram

19.   Nagaland

20.   Odisha

21.   Punjab

22.   Rajasthan

23.   Sikkim

24.   Tamil Nadu

25.   Tripura

26.   Uttar Pradesh

27.   Uttarakhand

28.   West Bengal

29.   Telangana

1.       Hyderabad

2.       Itanagar

3.       Dispur

4.       Patna

5.       Raipur

6.       Panaji

7.       Gandhinagar

8.       Chandigarh

9.       Shimla

10.   Srinagar

11.   Ranchi

12.   Bengaluru

13.   Thiruvananthapuram

14.   Bhopal

15.   Mumbai

16.   Imphal

17.   Shillong

18.   Aizawl

19.   Kohima

20.   Bhubaneshwar

21.   Chandigarh

22.   Jaipur

23.   Gangtok

24.   Chennai

25.   Agartala

26.   Lucknow

27.   Dehra Dun

28.   Kolkata

29.   Hyderabad

Union Territories – Capital           
1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands – Port Blair
2. Chandigarh – Chandigarh
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli – Silvassa
4. Daman and Diu – Daman
5. Lakshadweep – Kavaratti
6. Delhi – Delhi
7. Puducherry – Puducherry
8. India – New Delhi

Question 9.
Name the point in the Himalayas where the boundaries of five countries meet. Name the countries.
Answer:
Indira Col in the Himalayas is the point where the boundaries of five countries meet. The countries are :
India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, China and Tajikistan.

Question 10.
Name the six main physical divisions of India.
Answer:

  1. The Northern Mountains
  2. The Great Northern Plains
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Coastal Plains
  5. The Thar Desert
  6. The Islands

Question 11.
What do the Northern Mountains consist of ?
Answer:
The Northern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the hills of north-east India and together they form the northern and north-eastern boundaries of the country.

Question 12.
The Himalayas are rising even now. Comment.
Answer:
The Himalayas are relatively young mountains formed from the sediment deposited in the ancient Tethys Sea. The Tethys Sea lay between ancient land masses of Laurasia in the north and Gondawanaland in the south about 185 million years ago. The two land masses moved closer due to movements inside the earth and then collide with each other. This caused the seabed of the Tethys Sea to fold upwards, forming the mountains. The Himalayas are rising even now.

Question 13.
Name the three main ranges of the Himalayas. Compare them.
Answer:
The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges of mountains

  1. The Greater Himalayas (Himadri)
  2. The Lesser Himalayas (Himachal)
  3. The Outer Himalayas (Shiwalik)

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 9 India Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features 3

Question 14.
Name few passes or gaps in the Himalayas that serve as important passages through the northern mountain wall.
Answer:
Shipki La, Thaga La, Nathu La and Jelep La.

Question 15.
What is the location and extend of the Great Northern Plains ? Which rivers have formed it ?
Answer:
The Great Northern Plains lie between the Northern Mountains in the north and the Peninsular Plateau of India in the south. They extend from Punjab in the west to the Brahmaputra. Valley in the east for about 2,400 km. These plains are formed by three major rivers — the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, and their tributaries.

Question 16.
Where do the Ganga and the Brahmaputra join and where do they drain ?
Answer:
The Ganga and the Brahmaputra join in Bangladesh where they flow as one river — the Padma — which drains into the Bay of Bengal. Together these rivers have built the largest delta in the world the Sundarbans.

Question 17.
Write a short note on the Peninsular Plateau.
Answer:
The Peninsular Plateau is an ancient land mass made up of hard crystalline rocks of igneous and metamorphic origin. The plateau is triangular in shape, broad in the north and tapering towards Kanniyakumari in the south. The plateau extends from the Aravalli Range in the west up to the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the east. The Peninsular Plateau is divided by the river Narmada into two parts —

(a) The Malwa Plateau :

  1. Bounded by the Vindhya Range in the south, the Aravalli Range in the west and the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the east.
  2. Drained by the rivers Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken, Son, and Damodar.

(b) The Deccan Plateau :

  1. Bounded by the Satpura Range in the north, the hills of the Western Ghats in the west and the hills of the Eastern Ghats in the east.
  2. Drained by the rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.

Question 18.
How have the rocks of the Deccan Plateau formed ?
Answer:
The rocks that make up the Deccan Plateau have solidified from the outpourings of lava from large fissures in the earth. These spread out in sheets to form one of the most extensive and thickest accumulations of lava flows in the world.

Question 19.
Write a short note on Thar desert.
Answer:
The Thar Desert is a vast low-lying plain with sandy ridges and shifting sand dunes. It lies mainly between the Aravallis in the east and the Sind Desert of Pakistan in the west. This desert lies primarily in north-western Rajasthan. The region receives very less rainfall, less than 25 cm annually and hence lacks water resources. River Luni is the only river that carries little water. The India Gandhi Canal has changed the desert into fertile land to some extent. Crops such as wheat, barley, grapes and melons grow here now.

Question 20.
Name the two categories of rivers of India.
Answer:
On the basis of the area of origin, the rivers of India are divided into the categories :

  1. the north Indian rivers or the Himalayan rivers — which originate from glaciers in mountains.
  2. the south Indian rivers or peninsular rivers — which are fed by rains.

Question 21.
Name the five tributaries of river Indus.
Answer:
The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum are the five main tributaries of the Indus (Panchnadi).

Question 22.
Name the states from where the river Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra flow in India.
Answer:
The river Indus flows through the state of Jammu and Kashmir (from Tibet) and enters Pakistan.
The river Ganga flows through 4 states — Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
The river Brahmaputra flows through Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.

Question 23.
Which river is called the ‘Ganga of the South’ ?
Answer:
The Godavari river.

Question 24.
Define the following:

  1. Alluvial plain
  2. A Pass
  3. Tributary

Answer:

  1. Alluvial plain — It is a plain formed by the sedimentary deposits of a river.
  2. Pass — It is a gap through a mountain range that provides a route for travelling through it.
  3. Tributary — It is a small river that flows into a larger river, thereby contributing water to it.

Question 25.
How are rivers important to humans ?
Answer:
Rivers are very important to humans as :

  1. They are a source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes and of food and livelihoods.
  2. They are also a source of transportation.
  3. The are often used for recreational and religious activities.

26. Fill in the blanks

  1. India is a part of the continent of Asia.
  2. India is seventh largest country and has second largest population in the world.
  3. India lies entirely in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
  4. The 82 1/2° E longitude is the Standard Meridian for India.
  5. The Himalayas separate India from the rest of the Asia.
  6. Indira Col is the point in the Himalayas where the boundaries of five countries meet.
  7. Delhi is referred to as the National Capital Territory of India.
  8. The Himalayas are the source of perennial rivers such as the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers.
  9. The Great Northern Plains extend from Punjab in the west to the Brahmaputra Valley in the east.
  10. The alluvial soil of the river valleys/plains is very fertile.
  11. The largest delta in the world built by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra is Sundarbans.
  12. The Peninsular Plateau of India is triangular in shape.
  13. On either side of the Peninsular Plateau of India are the Coastal Plains of India.
  14. Coconut Palms grow profusely in the Coastal Plains of India.
  15. The Thar Desert receives less than 25 cm rain annually.
  16. Luni is the only significant river in the Thar desert but carries very little water.
  17. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are separated by a wide channel called the Ten Degree channel.
  18. The Lakshadweep Islands lie at a distance of 200-400 km from the Malabar Coast.
  19. The Lakshadweep Islands is the smallest union territory of India.
  20. The river Indus and river Brahmaputra originate in Tibet before entering India.
  21. The river Ganga has it source in the Gangotri glacier.
  22. River Brahmaputra enters India in Arunachal Pradesh from Tibet.
  23. The west flowing rivers of the Peninsular rivers drain into the Arabian Sea.
  24. The margins of the Deccan Plateau consist of hills called the Eastern Ghats in the east and the Western Ghats in the west.

Map Skills

1. On a Political Map of India, show all the States and Union territories of India along with their Capitals.

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 9 India Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features 4

2. On an outline map of India, show the important physical features.

ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage Chapter 9 India Location, Extent, Political and Physical Features 5