Classification of Organic Halogen Compounds – Definition, Examples, Uses, & Facts

Classification of Organic Halogen Compounds – Definition, Examples, Uses, & Facts

A General Survey. Organic halogen compounds are derivatives of organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an equal number of halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, or I). Almost any class of organic compounds (e.g., alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids) can contain halogen atoms.

The haloalkanes, also known as alkyl halides, are a group of chemical compounds comprised of an alkane with one or more hydrogens replaced by a halogen atom (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine). The classification is determined by the number of carbons bonded to the carbon bearing the halide.

These are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to an sp3-hybridised carbon atom next to carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) i.e. to an allylic carbon. These are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to an sp3 hybridised carbon atom next to an aromatic ring.

Classification of Organic Halogen Compounds

Both chlorine and bromine are used as disinfectants for drinking water, swimming pools, fresh wounds, spas, dishes, and surfaces. They kill bacteria and other potentially harmful microorganisms through a process known as sterilization. Chlorine and bromine are also used in bleaching.

The halogens all form binary compounds with hydrogen, and these compounds are known as the hydrogen halides: hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen bromide (HBr), hydrogen iodide (HI), and hydrogen astatide (HAT). When in aqueous solution, the hydrogen halides are known as hydrohalic acids.

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