ICSE Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics – Rise of Assertive Nationalism

ICSE Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics – Rise of Assertive Nationalism

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Very Short Questions

Question 1: When did the Congress split into two blocks?
Answer: The Congress split into Moderates and the Assertives at the Surat Session of the Congress held in 1907.

Question 2: Mention one difference between the Moderates and the Assertives.
Answer: The Moderates believed in giving petitions and memorandums, but the Assertives favoured vigorous mass movements to press the British Government to concede Indian demands.

Question 3: When did the conflict arise between the Moderates and the Assertives?
Answer: The conflict between the two came to the surface in the Congress session held in 1906.

Question 4: Why was one of the sections of the Congress called the ‘Assertives’?
Answer: A section of the Congress was called the Assertives because they were more radical in their demands and believed in a more Assertive form of nationalism.

Question 5: Which classes of people in general supported the Assertive?
Answer: The people of lower middle classes, the students, workers and farmers supported the Assertives.

Question 6: What impact did the wars in Tibet and Afghanistan have on the national movement?
Answer: The wars in Tibet and Afghanistan were expensive and they put pressure on the impoverished Indian economy. This created a strong reaction against them.

Question 7: What impact did the ill-treatment of Indians in Africa have on the, National Movement?
Answer: The unjust and cruel treatment of Indians in Africa ignited the fire of assertipm in the Nationalist Movement in India.

Question 8: What was the aim of the Assertives as far as the National Movement was concerned?
Answer: The main aim of the Assertives was to gain complete independence of India and not dominion status as claimed by the Moderates.

Question 9: Name the nationalist who said Swaraj is my birth right. Mention one of his contributions to the National Movement.
Answer: Bal Gangadhar Tilak. He established Home Rule Movement to infuse the nation with new strength and vigour.

Question 10: What method was used by the Assertives for attaining independence in the field of education?
Answer: Students were called upon to boycott schools and colleges run by the Government. Special institutions were established to impart education according to the needs of the nation.

Question 11: Name any three of the nationalists who were educated in special institutions established according to the philosophy of the Assertives.
Answer: (i) Bhagat Singh (ii) Rajguru (iii) B.K. Dutt.

Question 12: What was the slogan of the Assertives and who gave this slogan?
Answer: Bal Gangadhar Tilak gave the slogan, ‘Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it’.

Question 13: What was the attitude of the British Government towards the Assertives?
Answer: The British Government followed the policy of repression against the Assertives.

Question 14: Name the two famous journals of Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Answer: (i) The ‘Maratha’ in English, (ii) The ‘Kesari’ in Marathi.

Question 15: In what way was Tilak the forerunner of Gandhiji?
Answer: Tilak was the forerunner of Gandhiji. The policy of boycott of Government service, prohibition and swadeshi principles were preached and practiced by him.

Question 16: When and why did Tilak leave the Indian National Congress?
Answer: Tilak left the Indian National Congress in 1907 after there was a split in the Congress. Tilak assumed the leadership of the Assertives because he was against the policies of the Moderates.

Question 17: Who started the newspaper ‘TheYoung India’? Why did he start this paper?
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai started the newspaper called ‘The Young India’. He used it as a channel to propagate his ideas of radical nationalism.

Question 18: Which class of people in general believed in the policy and programme of the Assertives?
Answer: Since the Assertives made their programme as a National Movement, the Indian masses in general supported the Assertives.

Question 19: What was the purpose of the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909?
Answer: These reforms were introduced to appease the Moderates; hence they held the reins of the Indian National Congress in their hands.

Question 20: What did Lord Minto, the Viceroy, do to suppress the anti-nationalists?
Answer: Lord Minto issued certain ordinances banning processions, meetings and demonstrations against the British Government.

Question 21: Who were the important leaders of the Assertives?
Name the leaders who constituted the Assertives trio in the early year of the twentieth century.
Answer: The Assertive were led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Rai at the time of the Congress split. They were also called Lal-Bal-Pal.

Question 22: Name two of the books written by Lala Lajpat Rai.
Answer: The two books written by Lala Lajpat Rai were:
(i) The Arya Samaj (ii) England’s Debt to India.

Question 23: Why did Lala Lajpat Rai disagree witlj the programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement of Gandhiji?
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai disagreed with the programmes of Non-Cooperation Movement because he was a fighter and not a satyagrahi.

Question 24: Which national leader Was called Sher-e-Punjab? Why was he called so?
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai was called Sher-e-Punjab (Lion of Punjab). His courage and determination were the main reason why he earned the above title.

Question 25: Name any three important persons who led the Moderates at the time of the split.
Answer: The Moderates were led by Feroz Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Surendra Nath Banerjee.

Question 26: Mention one principal objective of the Assertives.
Answer: They wanted to oust the imperial regime by means of mass struggle, because they felt that the old mendicancy could not prove effective.

Question 27: Mention three methods of the Assertives proposed for attaining independence.
Answer: The Assertives proposed the following three methods for the attainment of independence,
(i) Swadeshi, (ii) Boycott, (iii) National Education.

Question 28: Mention any two principles of the Aggressive Nationalists.
Answer: (i) Freedom is the birth right of every Indian.
(ii) Supported the swadeshi goods against the use of imported goods.

Question 29: Give one example to show that while giving impetus to the national movement, the assertive nationalist presented one-sided picture of India’s composite culture?
Answer: The assertives nationalists in order to glorify India’s past presented one-sided picture of India’s composite culture. They praised Shivaji and Rana Pratap, while they remained silent on Akbar and Sher Shah Suri.

Short Questions – I

Question 1: State any two repressive policies of Lord Curzon which prepared the way for a assertive form of nationalism.
Answer: (i) The Act of 1898 made it an offence to provoke people against imperial rulers.
(ii) In 1899, Lord Curzon passed the Calcutta Corporation Act by which he increased the number of Englishmen on the list of official members of the Corporation.

Question 2: What impact did the bloody revolutions in China and Turkey have on the national movement?
Answer: The bloody revolutions in China and Turkey inspired the people of India. Indians thought they too could unite and put up a brave fight in order to liberate their country.

Question 3: What was the attitude of the Assertives towards Swadeshi?
Answer: The people were asked to use Swadeshi goods manufactured in India. They were discouraged from using goods made in England, so as to give a direct blow to the commercial interests of the British which alone kept them in India for so long.

Question 4: Explain how the famine and plague influenced the growth of Assertives Nationalism in India.
Answer: Towards the close of the nineteenth century there were two consecutive famines within a period of ten years. The people had to suffer untold miseries and hardships. After the famine: there was always an outbreak of some epidemic like plague, etc. The feelings of Indians were
extremely injured at the cold attitude of the English towards such ugly happenings in India. The people painfully realized the evils of the British rule.

Question 5: In what way did the economic backwardness foster communal feelings in India?
Answer: During the British rule in India there was acute unemployment problem. There were many people trying to get few jobs. This tempted people to ask for reservation in jobs on the basis of caste, creed or religion. Thus, economic backwardness helped in fostering communal feelings in India.

Question 6: What were the two reasons responsible for the Surat split in 1907 between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists.
Answer: (i) The Early Nationalists believed in being diplomatic with the British Government to resolve minor issues but the Assertive Nationalists resorted to strikes, agitation and boycotts.
(ii) In the Surat session of 1907, a difference of opinion regarding the candidature for President of Congress arose between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists.
These were the basic reasons responsible for the Surat Split in 1907.

Question 7: Give two measures adopted by the Radical Nationalists in the freedom struggle.
Answer: (i) They instilled self-confidence and self-reliance among the people and aroused national sentiments and united the whole nation in their struggle for freedom.
(ii) They broadened the social base of the movement by extending it to the masses – the workers, peasants, women and the youth.

Question 8: What were the aims of the Assertives?
Answer: The aims of the Assertives were:
(i) To achieve swaraj for the Indian people.
(ii) To prevent the deceit and treachery of the British which they had brought India under their control.

Question 9: Who organised Akharas and Lathi clubs? Why were they organised?
Answer: Bal Gangadhar Tilak organised Akharas and Lathi clubs. These clubs were organised to make the youth brave to enable them to fight for the freedom of their country.

Question 10: In what two ways can Tilak be called the “Fore-runner of Gandhi”?
Answer: (i) It was Tilak who went to South Africa and asked Mahatma Gandhi to return to India.
(ii) Tilak made innumerable sacrifices for the cause of the motherland which Mahatma Gandhi launched after Tilak’s death.

Question 11: What were the steps took by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in exposing’the causes of British Administration.
Answer: The British Government took all possible measures to repress all the activities of the Assertives.
(i) Their leaders were jailed, some of them without trait, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was jailed for six years.
(ii) His two journals, the ‘Maratha’ in English and the ‘Kesari’ in Marathi exposed the excesses of the British Government. These two journals gave the people new directions in their efforts to fight for the freedom of India. The people were able to learn about the glorious past of the Marathas, which helped them to stand united against the drastic measures to suppress the Assertives nationalism.

Question 12: Mention two important contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai.
Answer: (i) Lala Lajpart Rai led the Non Co-operation movement in Punjab after which he came to be known as ‘Punjab Kesri’.
(ii) He wrote books like ‘Young India’ which is very helpful in understanding true nature and contributions of freedom fighters of India. He was also a social reformer and started the ‘Lok Sewak Society’ that established new schools for depressed classes.

Question 13: What Assertives appeal to the masses?
Answer: The Assertives asked the people to use Swadeshi goods manufactured in India. They were asked not to use goods made in England and to boycott them, and they appealed to the students to join National Schools and Colleges instead of Government Schools and Colleges.

Question 14: Mention two achievements in the freedom movement of India, of Assertive Nationalists.
Answer: (i) The Assertives created self-confidence and self-reliance among the people.
(ii) By propagating boycott of foreign goods and use of Swadeshi they revived the old cottage industries and handicrafts.

Question 15: In what two ways did the revolutionary terrorism leave an impact on the National Movement?
Answer: (i) The Revolutionaries selflessly sacrificed homes, their families, bright careers on the alter of the country.
(ii) The revolutionaries struck such a terror in the minds of the British officers that they were forced to mend their unjust, cruel and haughty ways and treat the Indians judiciously.

Short Questions – II

Question 1: Discuss, how partition of Bengal influenced the growth of Assertive Natianalism in India.
Answer: Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal in 1905. His contention was that Bengal was too big a province to be governed by one Governor. He expressed his opinion that Bengal was partitioned for better administration. Indians were not satisfied with this view of Lord Curzon but believed that it was partitioned mainly to create a rift between the Hindus and the Muslims of Bengal. Soon there arose a wave of anger amongst the Indians, who expressed resentment against the nefarious activities of the British. Meetings were held and processions taken out throughout the country and soon it assumed a national character.

Question 2: Briefly describe the growth of the Assertive Nationalism with the help of Revolution’s impact.
Answer: There were revolutions in many parts of the World where imperialism actively oppressed the free people. This was the special feature of the early years of the twentieth century. There were revolutions in China, Turkey and Iran. The spirit of determination among the people was so strong that against all odds they succeeded in their objectives. The people of India, especially the educated, were inspired by those revolutions. This filled them with a new spirit and they took a vow not to rest till they liberated their mother country, India, from the British Rule.

Question 3: What were the three methods of struggle adopted by Aggressive Nationalists.
Answer: Following are the three methods adopted by Aggressive Nationalists:
(i) Revivalism: Aggressive Nationalist wanted to generate feeling of national pride among people by reviving and glorifying past Indian religious and cultural traditions.
(ii) Swadeshi: In order to generate national awakening, the assertives emphasized on the use and production of native goods.
(iii) Boycott: Boycott is another side of Swadeshi. It involves boycotting the use of foreign goods and services and promoting the use of native goods and services. It generated national feelings and promoted the growth of native traditional industry.

Question 4: The conflict between the Moderates and the Assertives came to surface in the Congress Session in 1906. In this context describe the reasons for the split in the Congress in 1907.
Answer: The differences of opinion between the Moderates and the Assertives occurred in the Congress session held in 1906. It was somehow averted by the timely intervention of Dadabhai Naoroji. The Assertives were impatiently eager to start a vigorous National Movement against the British rule and wanted to get complete independence. But the Moderates were lacking in their determination.

Question 5: Mention three achievements of the Assertives.
Answer: (i) The Assertives made it a mass movement. This movement included not only the educated people but also peasants and workers.
(ii) They specified the goal of the national struggle for achieving total independence.
(iii) The Assertives tried to cripple the administration by using methods of non-co-operation and boycott.

Question 6: Brief about the achievement of the Assertives.
Answer: It was the spirit of Nationalism which ultimately got India her freedom. The Assertives played a very important role in the long struggle of Indian freedom. They helped to revive Indian handicrafts and improved the lot of the artisans and craftsmen. The Nationalism of the Moderates was mainly for the educated class of people but the Assertives spread it to the masses. They created national awareness among all shades of people. Thus the people were united as a nation in their struggle for freedom.

Question 7: Discuss about the efforts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak which were beneficial in the spread of Assertive nationalism.
Answer: Bal Gangadhar Tilak believed that education for the new generation of freedom fighters should be based on assertive nationalism.
(i) He started the ‘Deccan Education Society’ in 1884. Under this Society many educational schools were opened where the students were taught patriotism and national pride. Ferguson College in Pune is one such institution, where assertive nationalism was the foundation of the student. Many revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were the product of such institutions.
(ii) In his paper ‘Kesari’ he wrote, ‘If thieves enter our house and we do not have sufficient strength to drive them out, we should without hesitation, shut them up and bum them alive.’
(iii) He organised ‘Akharas’ and revived the Ganapati festival to create and build assertive nationalism among tte people.

Question 8: Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the leader of the Assertives nationalists. In this contest describe his political belief.
Answer: Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a’bom nationalist. He finished his studies as a law graduate. He served all his life for the cause of mother India. From the time he joined the Congress he did not agree to the spirit of mendicancy of the Congress. His political beliefs can be summed up in his own words “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.” He did not agree with the Moderates who never wanted the British to go away but they pleaded for autonomy. Tilak believed in making the people self-reliant so that their national spirit could launch political agitations. He was a fearless fighter.

Question 9: Mention the political aims of Bipin Chandra Pal.
Answer: Bipin Chandra Pal was one of the chief exponents of a new political approach for Indian freedom. His aim was to get freedom for his country through the ideas of Purna Swaraj, Videshi Boycott and National Education. The difference between his and Tilak’s approach was that he opposed an aggressive approaChapter Nevertheless, he continued his Assertive nationalism along with Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai in demanding Swaraj as the chief aim of the Congress. In one of his writing he wrote, ‘India must attain absolute autonomy, free from foreign control’. It is from this time that he started drifting away from the Moderates.

Question 10: Discuss the role of Lala Lajpat Rai as a writer and journalist.
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai was a journalist and a writer. He started the newspaper called, ‘The Young India’. He propagated his ideas of radical nationalism among the people of India. He wrote biographies of Garibaldi, Mazzini, Shivaji and Swami Dayananda. He wrote books on India’s miserable condition under the British rule in India. He was a fierce speaker, vigorous writer and journalist of very high caliber. He founded the ‘Vande Mataram’ (Urdu Daily) and the ‘People’ (English Weekly). He founded the Tilak School of Politics.

Question 11: ‘Lala Lajpat Rai was a fearless nationalist and a journalist’. In this context briefly describe his contribution in the field of education.
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai was bom in 1865 in Jagraon in Punjab. He was a lawyer by profession. He was a great scholar as well. He wrote ‘The Arya Samaj’ and ‘England’s debt to India’. He opened orphanages, schools and hospitals. He set up ‘Servants of the People’s Society’ for the welfare of the untouchables and the downtrodden. He co-operated wholeheartedly with Madan Mohan Malaviya in fighting illiteracy in India. Madan Mohan Malaviya laid the foundation of Banaras Hindu University and Lala Lajpat Rai laid the Foundation of DAV College, Lahore. He believed in Hindu-Muslim unity.

Long Questions

Question 1: “Anti-Indian attitude of Curzon lead to Radial nationalism.” Discuss.
Answer: Lord Curzon was unsympathetic towards the Indians. He used all suppressive methods to curb the activities of patriots and the nationalists. In 1899, the Calcutta Corporation Act was passed which full officialised the Calcutta Corporation. The Indian University Act of 1904, was another hard measure of control over the autonomy of the universities. All these measures of the British Government were considered as anti-Indian. The people were filled with the spirit of defiance against the British Rule. Soon the National movement assumed a assertive character. Several terrorist organisations were formed, which resorted to political agitations and proclaimed complete independence of the country as their ultimate aim.

Question 2: Discuss, how international events became the major factor in the growth of the assertive natinalism.
Answer: The Indian assertive nationalists were greatly inspired when they learnt few facts of history where small and apparently weaker countries had defeated mighty nations. Two such examples were, when Ethiopians defeated the Italians in 1896. It is hard to believe that a strong country is defeated at the hands of small country. Russia, a great European country was defeated by Japan, a small Asian country. These events generated a new spirit of self-confidence among the Indians. The Marathi weekly, ‘Kesari’ which was edited by Tilak, published a commentary on 6th December, 1904. It said, The Russian-Japanese war had given a rude shock to the belief that people of Asia had hardly any sentiment of nationality. The people now realized that India could get rid of the British rule just as easily as the Japanese had defeated the Russians, if they united like a perfect nation. Let us drive the British into the sea and take our place side by side, with the great powers of the world.

Question 3: How did Moderates differ from the Assertive Nationalist in realizing their objectives.
Answer: Difference between Moderates and Assertive Nationalists:

BasisModeratesAssertive Nationalists
1. Basic beliefsThe Moderates looked to England for inspiration and guidance. Gokhale, Ranade, Naoroji and other Moderate leaders had almost unlimited faith in the British goodness. They readily conceded the benefits of British rule to India.They had a great dislike for the British. Tilak, Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and others had no faith in the goodness of the British. They cursed the British rule that brought misery to the people of India.
2. Their Ultimate objectIn 1906, the Moderates talked to Swaraj as the goal of India. It meant the system of Government as found in the self-governing British colonies.They did not aim at mere economic or administrative reforms. Their ideal was “Absolute Swaraj”.
3. Their Programmes and Methods of struggleThe Moderates carried on their work by means of petitions, appeals, resolutions, meetings and deputations.The Assertives described these methods as “Political Mendicancy” because they believed in direct action.
4. Approach to Boy-cott movementThe Moderates boycott was launched only to the British goods.The Nationalist’s boycott also included boycott of government services, tilles and honours.
5. Inclusion of masses in freedom struggleThe Moderates believed in Constitution methods as such the efforts bore the mark of individuality and were isolated from the masses.The Aggressive Nationalist believed in the strength of masses. They promoted the freedom movement into a mass struggle.

Question 4: The assertive nationalism played an important role in the freedom movement of India. In this context, breifly describe the methods they advocated for the achievement of their aims.
Answer: The Assertives believed that the British Government would never pay heed to the constitutional methods. The only way left open for the Assertives was to put popular pressure upon the British Government to concede the Indian demand of total independence of the country. To achieve this aim, the Assertives proposed three ways: (a) Swadeshi, (b) Boycott and (c) National education. They urged the people to use Swadeshi goods, and boycott the English goods. It would have served double purpose i.e our own economy would improve and the British goods would find no place in India. It would have also popularised our handicrafts. It would give a sense of pride to our people. The Assertives wanted schools and colleges run by Indian societies and not by Government. For this they appealed to the students to boycott Government schools and colleges. Special national institutions were started all over the country. Many revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, and Batukeshwar Dutt were the products of such institutions.
The Assertives succeeded in spreading National Movement all over the country. The volunteers and students picketed shops and centers where English goods were sold. They made bonfires of the English goods.

Question 5: In spite of the British Government’s high handedness the Assertives spread the nationalist movement with full vigour. In this context describe the attitude of the British Government towards the Assertives.
Answer: The British Government used all possible measures to suppress the activities of the Assertives. It also tried to win over the sympathy of the Moderates by encouraging them in various ways. The Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 were basically introduced to appease the Moderates. They were also elected to the Legislative Council and the activities of the Assertives were banned. Many of the top leaders were jailed. Lord Minto issued several ordinances curtailing the right of free speech, political processions, meetings and demonstrations, Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo. Ghosh and many others were arrested and jailed for several years. Many national dailies and weeklies were suppressed. The important among them were the ‘Sandhya’, the ‘Vande Mataram’ and ‘Yugantar’. The British Government took all steps but could not suppress the Indian national spirit.

Question 6: Bipin Chandra Pal was one of the greatest revolutionaries’. In this context briefly describe the reasons for his drifting away from the Moderates.
Answer: From the time of his student life, Bipin Chandra Pal was interested in politics.
(i) He was greatly influenced by the political life of Surendra Nath Banerjee. Bipin considered him to be his political Guru.
(ii) He joined the Indian National Congress in 1886.
(iii) He was of the opinion that in order to achieve political unity it was necessary for the people to know their Indian culture. If they appreciate their own culture, they will come closer to-each other and will fall in line to achieve political unity.
(iv) While he was still a member of the National Congress, he realized that the constitutional methods of the Moderates did not bear any results.
(v) He shifted his loyalty from the Moderates to the Assertive Nationalists.

Question 7: Discuss about the contribution of Bipin Chandra Pal in National Movement.
Answer: Bipin Chandra’s contribution to India’s freedom struggle was as follows:

  1. His Role is Awakening National Consciousness in India: Bipin Chandra joined the Congress in 1887. At the Madras (Chennai) Congress in 1887, he made a forceful speech in which he pleaded that the Arms Act should be repeated. In 1990, he visited England and the United States. He participated in several sessions of the Congress and contributed greatly to the growth of national consciousness in India.
  2. A Great Journalist and Marvellous Orator: Bipin Chandra was a great journalist. He edited several papers, the most important among them being New India, which he started in 1901. In an article, he wrote: “individuals are born individuals die, but the Nation live forever.” Bipin was a marvellous orator.
  3. An Active Role in Anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movement: During the Anti-Partition movement 1905, he toured several parts of the country and wherever he went he carried with him the message of Boycott and Swadeshi. In May 1907, he delivered several speeches on Swaraj in (Madras) Chennai.
  4. Made Great Sacrifices because of his Aggressive Nationalism: After the Surat Session of the Congress, Bipin Chandra sided with Tilak and Lajpat Rai. He parted company with the Moderates, because he would not subscribe to the methods of petitions and appeals. As an aggressive nationalist, Bipin Chandra stood for stronger methods of agitation. Great hardship or suffering was the price that had been paid for freedom.
  5. His Ideas on National Education: Bipin Chandra wanted education to be organised on nationalistic lines. He disliked those educated Indians who identified themselves with the ruling class and had a contempt for the common people.

Question 8: What were the contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai in National Movement? Discuss in brief.
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai (1865—1928) known as Sher-i-Punjab (Lion of Punjab) was a fearless leader. Born in 1865 he joined the Congress in 1888. When there was a split in the Congress in 1907, he joined the radicals.
(i) While in USA, he started a newspaper called the Young India. He also wrote books such as the Aryasamaj, Englands debt to India and the Political future of India. Through his writings he preached radical nationalism, inspired the Indian youth and kindled the fire of patriotism in them.
(ii) He transformed the freedom struggle into the agitation of the millions and the common masses. He through his speeches and writings accelerated its pace and widened its base, he presided over historic session of the Congress in 1920. It was here that the resolution of “Non-Cooperation” was adopted by the Congress.
(iii) He supported Gandhiji’s proposal and spread the message of non-cooperation throughout India.
(iv) He led the demonstration against the Simon Commission. He was assaulted by a British Sergent in the ensuing lathi charge and could not recover from it. He sacrificed his life so that India could win its freedom. Before his death he said, “Lathi blows inflicted on me would prove one day as nails in the coffin of the British Empire.”

Picture Based Questions

Question 1: Answer the following:
ICSE Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics – The Programme and Achievements of the Early Nationalist 1
(i) Identify the persons in the picture given above.
(ii) To which section of the Congress did he belong and what was his ultimate objectives?
Answer: (i) The person in the picture is Lala Lajpat Rai.
(ii) Lala Lajpat Rai was an outstanding leader of assertive section of congress. His ultimate objective was the attainment of “Swaraj”, complete independence.

Question 2: Answer the following:
ICSE Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics – The Programme and Achievements of the Early Nationalist 2
(i) Name the person represented in the picture given alongside.
(ii) Why this person is known as the forerunner of Mahatma Gandhi.
Answer: (i) The person represented in the picture is Balgangadhar Tilak.
(ii) (a) Gandhiji ideals were moulded by Tilak’s thoughts in a big way. Gandhiji laid great stress on prohibition, Swadeshi and Boycott.
(b) Gandhiji’s ideals of complete independence were similar to Tilak’s ideals of Swaraj.

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