OrganoMetallic Compounds – Definition, Details, Properties, and Applications

OrganoMetallic Compounds – Definition, Details, Properties, and Applications

Organo metallic compounds are organic compounds in which there is a direct carbon – metal bond. For Example CH3Mg I – Methyl magnesium iodide CH3CH2MgBr – Ethyl magnesium bromide

The Carbon – Magnesium bond in Grignard reagent is covalent but highly polar. The carbon atom is more electro negative than magnesium. Hence, the carbon atom has partial negative charge and the magnesium atom has partial positive charge

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Organo Metallic Compounds

Preparation

When a solution of alkyl halide in ether is allowed to stand over pieces of magnesium metal, the metal gradually dissolves and alkyl magnesium halide (Grignard reagent) is formed. All the reagents used should be pure and dry

Example

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Uses of Grignard Reagent

Grignard reagents are synthetically very useful compounds. These reagents are converted to various organic compounds like alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones. The alkyl group being electron rich acts as a carbanion or a nucleophile. They would attack polarized molecules at a point of low electron density. The following reactions illustrate the synthetic uses of Grignard reagent.

1. Preparation of Primary Alcohol

Formaldehyde reacts with Grignard reagent to give addition products which on hydrolysis yields primary alcohol.

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2. Preparation of Secondary Alcohol

Aldehydes other than formaldehyde, react with Grignard reagent to give addition product which on hydrolysis yields secondary alcohol.

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Organo Metallic Compounds

3. Preparation of Tertiary Alcohol

Ketone reacts with Grignard reagent to give an addition product which on hydrolysis yields tertiary alcohols.

Example

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4. Preparation of Aldehyde

Ethyl formate reacts with Grignard reagent to form aldehyde. However, with excess of Grignard reagent it forms secondary alcohol

Example

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5. Preparation of Ketone

Acid chloride reacts with Grignard reagent to form ketones. However, with excess of Grignard reagent it forms tertiary alcohol.

Example

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6. Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

Solid carbon dioxide reacts with Grignard reagent to form addition product which on hydrolysis yields carboxylic acids.

For Example

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7. Preparation of Esters

Ethylchloroformate reacts with Grignard reagent to form esters.

Example

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Organo Metallic Compounds

8. Preparation of Higher Ethers

Lower halogenated ether reacts with Grignard reagent to form higher ethers.

Example

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9. Preparation of Alkyl Cyanide

Grignard reagent reacts with cyanogen chloride to from alkyl cyanide

Example

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Organo Metallic Compounds

10. Preparation of Alkanes

Compounds like water, alcohols and amines which contain active hydrogen atom react with Grignard reagents to form alkanes.

Example

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