Buxar War 1764: The battle of Buxar or Baksar was a conflict at Buxar in India’s northeastern part. The army of the British and the allied states of India clashed against each other. Major Hector Munro was the commander of the British East India Company’s forces. The Indian states that participated in the battle were Bengal, Awadh, and the Mughal Emperor’s army.
The battle of Buxar has immense significance in Indian history as the decisive battle that initiated the source of the British rule in India. The battle led to the victory of British East India’s Forces, which ultimately led to the British rule over the states of Bengal and Bihar.
The battle commenced after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The winning of the East India Company in the battle of Buxar led to the removal of a puppet nawab, who controlled Bengal. Henceforth, the British East India Company took control of Bengal directly, which included a large area of the Indian subcontinent coming under British rule.
Who Won the Buxar War 1764?
There have been many battles between the British and the Indian forces. But the battle of Buxar holds immense significance since it was the decisive battle to decide the onset of British rule in a vast portion of the Indian subcontinent. The British forces won the battle, which led to India’s subsequent British rule for the next 183 years.
Which Two Forces Were Involved in the Buxar War?
The Battle of Buxar was a conflict between the English forces and the armies of Nawab of Oudh, the Mughal Emperor, and the Nawab of Bengal. The British forces won the battle subsequently, and they defeated the Indian forces.
What Led to the Buxar War ?
The Battle of Buxar resulted from the misuse of the trade privileges that the then Nawab of Bengal had given to the British East India Company. The Nawab gave the Company immense control over the trade of Bengal, and the British wanted more. The British forces were ambitious and wanted to take control of India’s trade, but wanted the entire country under their rule and the battle of Buxar was the second step.
What Was The Background of the Battle of Buxar?
The Battle of Plassey has occurred a few years before the Battle of Buxar. The Battle of Plassey gave the British a firm control over most parts of Bengal. In the Battle of Plassey, the British dethroned the then Nawab of Bengal, Nawab Mir Jafar.
The British made Mir Jafar their puppet, and he got involved with the Dutch East India Company. But under pressure, Mir Jafar resigned and favoured Mir Kasim as the new Nawab. The British fixed Rs. 1,500 per annum as his pension after his resignation.
What are the Key Reasons That Led to the Battle of Buxar?
Mir Qasim became Nawab, and he was ambitious. He wanted to shift the capital to Mungar Fort from Calcutta, which was the then capital. He hired many foreign experts who would train his army. These experts were in direct conflict with the British. Hence they would be perfect for training Mir Qasim’s army.
Unlike the other Nawabs, Mir Qasim treated the Indian merchants and the English merchants as the same. He did not give any inclination to the British at all. The English got angered and decided to overthrow him, and hence, the British declared war between them and Mir Qasim. It was the result of the battle of Buxar in 1764.
Who Were The Participants in the Battle of Buxar, and what Were Their Roles?
Several people were, directly and indirectly, related to the events that led to the Battle of Buxar. The names of the participators and their roles are as follows.
- Mir Qasim: He was administering Bengal in place of Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal. He did not support the fact that the English East India Company misused dastaks and farmans and took privileges in many aspects of the trade. They got the upper hand in trade, and the Indian traders did not get any such privileges. Hence, he wanted to stop it by allying with the Nawab of Awadh or Oudh and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam the second.
- Shuja Ud Daulah: He was the Nawab of Awadh or Oudh and wanted to remove the English forces. He formed a confederacy with Mir Qasim and Shah Alam the second.
- Shah Alam the second: He was the Mughal Emperor of India. He too wanted to overthrow the English from Bengal.
- Hector Munro: He was the Major of the British Army. He led the battle of the English troupes in the Battle of Buxar.
- Robert Clive: He made the treaties and made Shuja Ud Dauldah and Shah Alam the second sign after the battle. He became the British Governor of Bengal after their victory in the battle.
What Was The Course of the Battle of Buxar?
- The Battle of Buxar broke out in 1763. The English gained control over many successive victories at regions of Katwah, Giria, Murshidabad, Sooty, and Munger.
- Mir Qasim, the acting Nawab of Bengal, fled to Oudh.
- He allied with Shuja Ud Daula and Shah Alam the second as a desperate attempt to overthrow the English from Bengal and regain his territory.
- Mir Qasim’s joint army met the English troops in 1764.
- Major Munro directed the English troops.
- The British defeated the joint armies of Mir Qasim.
- Mir Qasim abandoned the battle and fled. The other two leaders, Shuja Ud Daulah and Shah Alam the second surrendered to the British Army.
- At the end of the battle with the defeat of the Indian army, the leaders signed the treaty of Allahabad in 1765.
What Were The Implications of the Battle of Buxar?
- Mir Qasim, Shuja Ud Daulah and Shah Alam the second lost the battle on October 22nd, 1764 lost the Battle of Buxar.
- Major Hector Munro won a final battle, and Robert Clive had a huge role in it.
- The English became a great power in the northern regions of India.
- Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal, had to hand over other parts of Bengal such as Midnapore, Burdwan, Chittagong, etc., to the English for their maintenance.
- The English got the permit for duty-free trade in Bengal in all items except salt which cost two per cent of duty.
- After Mir Jafar died, his minor son, Najimud Daula became Nawab, but the administrative powers rested in Naib Subahdar’s hands who could be used by the English as they liked.
- Clive made the political settlements with Shuja Ud Daila and the Emperor Shah Alam the second in the treaty of Allahabad.
What Were The Statements In The Treaty of Allahabad?
The English drew up the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765. According to the treaty, Shuja Ud Daulah had to give up Allahabad and regions of Kara to Shah Alam the second.
He also had to pay Rs 50 lakhs to the East India Company as war indemnity.
He had to give Balwant Singh, the Zamindar of Banaras the right to his estate’s full possession.
Shah Alam the second received many portions of northern India from Shuja Ud Daulah. The British asked him to remain at Allahabad under the Company’s protection.
The Emperor had to draw up a Farman that commanded the Diwani of Bengal, Orissa, and Bihar to control the East India Company for an annual payment of Rs 26 lakhs.
The Emperor had to give Rs 53 lakhs to the Company for the military defence, police protection, administrative and justice the English provided to the provinces.
Why Did the English Not Annex Awadh Even After They Defeated the Emperor?
The English decided not to annex Awadh even after they defeated the Emperor in the Battle of Buxar. It would place vast lands under their control that could be potentially invaded by the Afghans and the Marathas. Shuja Ud Daulah remained in Allahabad as per the British’s instructions and made Awadh a buffer region to protect the English from foreign invasions.
Hence, the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam the second become a useful rubber stamp for the Company.
Where Was the Placement of the Battle of Buxar?
The joint forces of Bengal gathered around 50,000 men to reconquer Bengal from the East India Company. In contrast, the British forces under Major Hector Munro gathered around 7000 men on the south of the Ganga river near Shahabad in Buxar in Bihar.
Though there were more soldiers in the Indian forces, most of them deserted the conflict and around 2000 men were killed in the battle, after which they retreated and admitted defeat to the East India Company.
The battle took place around 130 km to the west of Patna, in Buxar, of Bihar.
What Was The Reason For The Defeat of the Indian forces in the Battle of Buxar?
The Indian forces comprised around 50,000 men from the three alliances between Mir Qasim’s forces, the Emperor’s forces and Shuja Ud Daulah’s forces. On the other hand, the British troops consisted of around 7000 men where around 859 were British, and 5,297 were Indian sepoys, and 918 were from Indian cavalry.
The major reasons for the defeat of the Indian forces were as follows.
- There was a lack of coordination between the three alliances.
- Shuja Ud Daulah when faced with the direct heat of the British forces, crossed the river and blew up his boat-bridge. Hence, he abandoned his regimen and fled.
- Mir Qasim also fled the battle and stole three million rupees worth of gemstones, but was caught later.
- Emperor Shah Alam the second retreated the battle with 2000 lost soldiers and negotiated their defeat.