Buxar War 1764 | Implications, Reasons, Statements, Placements, Participants of Battle of Buxar

Buxar War

Buxar War 1764: The battle of Buxar or Baksar was a conflict at Buxar in India’s northeastern part. The army of the British and the allied states of India clashed against each other. Major Hector Munro was the commander of the British East India Company’s forces. The Indian states that participated in the battle were Bengal, Awadh, and the Mughal Emperor’s army.

The battle of Buxar has immense significance in Indian history as the decisive battle that initiated the source of the British rule in India. The battle led to the victory of British East India’s Forces, which ultimately led to the British rule over the states of Bengal and Bihar.

The battle commenced after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The winning of the East India Company in the battle of Buxar led to the removal of a puppet nawab, who controlled Bengal. Henceforth, the British East India Company took control of Bengal directly, which included a large area of the Indian subcontinent coming under British rule.

Who Won the Buxar War 1764?

There have been many battles between the British and the Indian forces. But the battle of Buxar holds immense significance since it was the decisive battle to decide the onset of British rule in a vast portion of the Indian subcontinent. The British forces won the battle, which led to India’s subsequent British rule for the next 183 years.

Buxar War 1764

Which Two Forces Were Involved in the Buxar War?

The Battle of Buxar was a conflict between the English forces and the armies of Nawab of Oudh, the Mughal Emperor, and the Nawab of Bengal. The British forces won the battle subsequently, and they defeated the Indian forces.

What Led to the Buxar War ?

The Battle of Buxar resulted from the misuse of the trade privileges that the then Nawab of Bengal had given to the British East India Company. The Nawab gave the Company immense control over the trade of Bengal, and the British wanted more. The British forces were ambitious and wanted to take control of India’s trade, but wanted the entire country under their rule and the battle of Buxar was the second step.

What Was The Background of the Battle of Buxar?

The Battle of Plassey has occurred a few years before the Battle of Buxar. The Battle of Plassey gave the British a firm control over most parts of Bengal. In the Battle of Plassey, the British dethroned the then Nawab of Bengal, Nawab Mir Jafar.

The British made Mir Jafar their puppet, and he got involved with the Dutch East India Company. But under pressure, Mir Jafar resigned and favoured Mir Kasim as the new Nawab. The British fixed Rs. 1,500 per annum as his pension after his resignation.

What are the Key Reasons That Led to the Battle of Buxar?

Mir Qasim became Nawab, and he was ambitious. He wanted to shift the capital to Mungar Fort from Calcutta, which was the then capital. He hired many foreign experts who would train his army. These experts were in direct conflict with the British. Hence they would be perfect for training Mir Qasim’s army.

Unlike the other Nawabs, Mir Qasim treated the Indian merchants and the English merchants as the same. He did not give any inclination to the British at all. The English got angered and decided to overthrow him, and hence, the British declared war between them and Mir Qasim. It was the result of the battle of Buxar in 1764.

Buxar War Reasons

Who Were The Participants in the Battle of Buxar, and what Were Their Roles?

Several people were, directly and indirectly, related to the events that led to the Battle of Buxar. The names of the participators and their roles are as follows.

  • Mir Qasim: He was administering Bengal in place of Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal. He did not support the fact that the English East India Company misused dastaks and farmans and took privileges in many aspects of the trade. They got the upper hand in trade, and the Indian traders did not get any such privileges. Hence, he wanted to stop it by allying with the Nawab of Awadh or Oudh and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam the second.
  • Shuja Ud Daulah: He was the Nawab of Awadh or Oudh and wanted to remove the English forces. He formed a confederacy with Mir Qasim and Shah Alam the second.
  • Shah Alam the second: He was the Mughal Emperor of India. He too wanted to overthrow the English from Bengal.
  • Hector Munro: He was the Major of the British Army. He led the battle of the English troupes in the Battle of Buxar.
  • Robert Clive: He made the treaties and made Shuja Ud Dauldah and Shah Alam the second sign after the battle. He became the British Governor of Bengal after their victory in the battle.

What Was The Course of the Battle of Buxar?

  1. The Battle of Buxar broke out in 1763. The English gained control over many successive victories at regions of Katwah, Giria, Murshidabad, Sooty, and Munger.
  2. Mir Qasim, the acting Nawab of Bengal, fled to Oudh.
  3. He allied with Shuja Ud Daula and Shah Alam the second as a desperate attempt to overthrow the English from Bengal and regain his territory.
  4. Mir Qasim’s joint army met the English troops in 1764.
  5. Major Munro directed the English troops.
  6. The British defeated the joint armies of Mir Qasim.
  7. Mir Qasim abandoned the battle and fled. The other two leaders, Shuja Ud Daulah and Shah Alam the second surrendered to the British Army.
  8. At the end of the battle with the defeat of the Indian army, the leaders signed the treaty of Allahabad in 1765.

What Were The Implications of the Battle of Buxar?

  • Mir Qasim, Shuja Ud Daulah and Shah Alam the second lost the battle on October 22nd, 1764 lost the Battle of Buxar.
  • Major Hector Munro won a final battle, and Robert Clive had a huge role in it.
  • The English became a great power in the northern regions of India.
  • Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal, had to hand over other parts of Bengal such as Midnapore, Burdwan, Chittagong, etc., to the English for their maintenance.
  • The English got the permit for duty-free trade in Bengal in all items except salt which cost two per cent of duty.
  • After Mir Jafar died, his minor son, Najimud Daula became Nawab, but the administrative powers rested in Naib Subahdar’s hands who could be used by the English as they liked.
  • Clive made the political settlements with Shuja Ud Daila and the Emperor Shah Alam the second in the treaty of Allahabad.

Buxar War Statements

What Were The Statements In The Treaty of Allahabad?

The English drew up the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765. According to the treaty, Shuja Ud Daulah had to give up Allahabad and regions of Kara to Shah Alam the second.

He also had to pay Rs 50 lakhs to the East India Company as war indemnity.

He had to give Balwant Singh, the  Zamindar of Banaras the right to his estate’s full possession.

Shah Alam the second received many portions of northern India from Shuja Ud Daulah. The British asked him to remain at Allahabad under the Company’s protection.

The Emperor had to draw up a Farman that commanded the Diwani of Bengal, Orissa, and Bihar to control the East India Company for an annual payment of Rs 26 lakhs.

The Emperor had to give Rs 53 lakhs to the Company for the military defence, police protection, administrative and justice the English provided to the provinces.

Why Did the English Not Annex Awadh Even After They Defeated the Emperor?

The English decided not to annex Awadh even after they defeated the Emperor in the Battle of Buxar. It would place vast lands under their control that could be potentially invaded by the Afghans and the Marathas. Shuja Ud Daulah remained in Allahabad as per the British’s instructions and made Awadh a buffer region to protect the English from foreign invasions.

Hence, the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam the second become a useful rubber stamp for the Company.

Where Was the Placement of the Battle of Buxar?

The joint forces of Bengal gathered around 50,000 men to reconquer Bengal from the East India Company. In contrast, the British forces under Major Hector Munro gathered around 7000 men on the south of the Ganga river near Shahabad in Buxar in Bihar.

Though there were more soldiers in the Indian forces, most of them deserted the conflict and around 2000 men were killed in the battle, after which they retreated and admitted defeat to the East India Company.

The battle took place around 130 km to the west of Patna, in Buxar, of Bihar.

What Was The Reason For The Defeat of the Indian forces in the Battle of Buxar?

The Indian forces comprised around 50,000 men from the three alliances between Mir Qasim’s forces, the Emperor’s forces and Shuja Ud Daulah’s forces. On the other hand, the British troops consisted of around 7000 men where around 859 were British, and 5,297 were Indian sepoys, and 918 were from Indian cavalry.

The major reasons for the defeat of the Indian forces were as follows.

  • There was a lack of coordination between the three alliances.
  • Shuja Ud Daulah when faced with the direct heat of the British forces, crossed the river and blew up his boat-bridge. Hence, he abandoned his regimen and fled.
  • Mir Qasim also fled the battle and stole three million rupees worth of gemstones, but was caught later.
  • Emperor Shah Alam the second retreated the battle with 2000 lost soldiers and negotiated their defeat.

Second Carnatic War (1749-1754) | Advantage, Technique, Military Forces and Unknowing Facts About Second Carnatic War

Second Carnatic War

Second Carnatic War: Between the years 1749 and 1754, The Second Carnatic War was fought between Robert Clive and the combined armed forces of the Mughal Empire in India at that time. It was fought in a place called Arcot. The War had the ruthless Britishers on one side with Robert Clive as their general and on the other side were the strong Mughals. The leader of the Mughals was Nasir Jung and his subject Muhammad Ali.

It is said to be that armed forces numbered around 15,000 men and 2,224 features of field artillery. Estimated Clive had around 100,000 men, do that numbers included cam followers. The fighting force was around 30000 to 40000 in total along with at least 1,000 war elephants.

Want to know how many wars and conflicts took place in History and changed the world? Check out this available List of Wars and Battles.

When Did The Second Carnatic War Take Place?

The Second Carnatic War occurred between the years 1749 and 1754 between Robert Clive and the combined armed forces of the Mughal Empire in India at that time. It was fought in a place called Arcot.

Who Won The Second Carnatic War?

The British won the second war of Carnatic. The large British forces defeated the rather smaller Mughal army. The war ended with the Treaty of Puducherry.

Second Carnatic War Mughal Empire

What Was The Advantage Of Using Cannons In The Battle?

The canons used during this war of the 18th century in India were the first times that canons were used to fight in a war. It made the strong British army look even stronger. They were able to dominate over the Mughals by the use of modern armoury over the Mughals who used traditional and backdated weapons in this war.

How Many Battles Of Carnatic Were Fought?

A total of three Carnatic Wars were fought between the British and the Mughals over seventeen years all over the 18th century in ancient India. They were fought between the years 1746 and 1763. Carnatic is a place which in modern-day India lies in the south of the country.

What Was The Technique Used by the British in the Carnatic War?

The new war tactics introduced by the British had a deadly impact on the Mughals. They divided the whole Army into various units, the left unit, the right unit and the centre unit. The left and the right decisions were further divided into the forward and rear divisions.

Through this, the British forces could use a small army to surrender the enemy from all sides. The British then provided the centre for vision with carts which were placed in rows and faced the enemy and tried to each other with ropes tied to string animals. Behind them were placed giant-sized cannons guarded and supported by warriors who could be used to nourish the cannons.

How Did The Britisher’s Formation Help In Winning The Battle?

The Carnatic wars were a sequence of battles or military conflicts fought in ancient India’s southern part. They were fought as a result of mental conflicts, the desire of one ruler to take over the territory of another in order to expand their reign and rule all over the country.

The two armies fought for over two weeks without any break. The formation and tactics used by the Britishers really reduced the renowned Mughal warriors to mere puppets.

Second Carnatic War Unknown Facts

What Was The Outcome of the Second Carnatic War?

The troops from France mutinied and hence weakened the entire army of the Mughals. Muzaffar Jang was so upset and tensed over the entire condition that he was compelled to surrender to the strong British army.

Dupleix got back his position with an epic night attack. The war led Nasir Shah back to Arcot. The war ended in the Treaty of Puducherry. The Mughals’ main strength was defeated, the British moved into the fort of St. David, and they left Mohammed Ali all one and alienated.

Between Who Was The Third Carnatic War Fought?

The third Carnatic war happened between the French and the British in the southern part of ancient India. It was fought in the year 1757. The French were successful in capturing the greater part of Karnataka. But they failed to capture the vital areas of the greater Karnataka.

How Was The Third Carnatic War Conducted?

The Carnatic wars were a sequence of battles or military conflicts fought in ancient India’s southern part. They were fought as a result of mental conflicts, the desire of one ruler to take over the territory of another in order to expand their reign and rule all over the country.

The two armies fought for over a period of two weeks without any break. The formation and tactics used by the Britishers really reduced the renowned French warriors to mere puppets.

What Did The British Army Consist Of?

Robert Clive led his Army himself. His Army consisted of 1500 battle elephants and a massive guard of artillery Park. He marched in excellent order with 30000 efficient horsemen composed all the best of the lot which he selected himself.

Second Carnatic War Techniques

What Were The Outcomes of the Third Carnatic War?

The French army was reduced to mere puppets. They were compelled to stay on the defensive side. On January 22, the long war finally ended with the French army losing the war. Bussy was taken as a prisoner.

The war sealed the fate of the French army in India. It shattered all the hopes of the French rulers to rule in India thereafter. Dumas and Dupleix had contributed to erect. It wanted all the hopes of Lally. It sealed the fate of Pondicherry.

Between Whom The First Carnatic War fought?

The first Carnatic war occurred between the French and the British in the southern part of ancient India. It was fought in the year 1740. The French were successful in capturing the greater part of Karnataka. But they failed to capture the vital areas of the greater Karnataka.

What Were The Military Forces Used In The First Carnatic War?

This battle pitted the French supplied artillery and cavalry of British against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery of the French lead by Dumas and Dupleix. It was a result of the Anglo-French conflict in India. As the French and the British were the most powerful, they had a stronger chance of establishing their rule.

What Was The Main Background Behind The First Carnatic War?

Carnatic was the name given to the coast of Coromandel and its hinterland by the Europeans who descended in India in the mid of 18th century. The first Carnatic war was a continuation of the Anglo-French War in Europe which was caused by the Austrian War of Succession.

The first of the three Carnatic Wars goes down in history as the Battle of St. Thome fought between the French forces and the forces of Anwar-ud-din, the then Nawab of the Carnatic Region, to whom the English appealed for help. The war involved almost the entire European continent. The countries were France, Britain, Spain, Bavaria.

What Was The Role Of The French in the First Carnatic War?

Britain and French were the most powerful among all the forces in the Southern part of ancient India during the mid of 18th century. Both of them wanted to expand their rule in the country. They wanted to get a stronghold of the Coromandel Coast region of the nation.

As a result of the increasing conflicts and power between the two armies, the French waged war to establish their rule over the country of India, to be specific the Carnatic region.

Second Carnatic War Military Forces

What Happened in the First Carnatic War?

The first two series of wars, the First Silesian War (1740-42) and the second Silesian War were centred around Austria and Prussia. The third war was centred on the continued conflict between France and Britain over colonial possessions in India and North America. During the course of the battle, the British proved their worth as soldiers and warriors.

With no supplies and dying soldiers, the chief of the French with their commander, Dupleix, to be allowed to die in battle then perish by starvation. The battle lasted for many days and involved over 125,000 troops. Both the armies fought really hard but the British totally dominated over the French army in all the wars.

What Were Or Was the Result of the First Carnatic War?

The first Carnatic were reduced the French to puppets of the British. They were compelled to surrender to the British, who dominated each part of the war. The French were always on the defensive side and hence lost the war.

What Are Some Of The Literary Works And Films That Are Based On The Carnatic Wars?

  1. Aakraman (1975)
  2. Vijeta (1982)
  3. Border (1997)
  4. 1971 – Prisoners of war (2007)
  5. 1971: Beyond Borders (2017)
  6. 16 December (2002)
  7. Deewar (2004)
  8. Raazi (2018)
  9. Romeo Akbar Walter (2019)
  10. Mukti: Birth of a Nation
  11. The Attack (2017)
  12. PNS

What Are Some Of The Unknown Facts About the Carnatic Wars?

  • One of the most interesting points about the third war of Carnatic was that an army of 40,000 left Arcotto travel up north, covering 1000 kilometres to stop an inviting Afghan Army of a lakh. Nowhere in the world, be it Europe or Southeast Asia, has an army Travel distance.
  • Dupleix, the French general was a man of great strength and military Acumen. He single-handedly led the entire expedition and fought gallantly, yet they lost the war.
  • All the wars were fought for more than two weeks continuously without a break in between. This has never happened in history.
  • This was the first time that in India almost the entire Europe was fighting to capture a part of ancient India.

First War of Independence Date and Year | All You Need To Know About First War of Independence | Reason, Impact and Causes of First War of Independence

First War of Independence

First War of Independence: First War of Independence is widely known by many names, which are the Sepoy Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Insurrection, the Revolt of 1857, and the Indian Mutiny. First War of Rebellion is among the major yet unsuccessful uprising across India in 1857-58 against the British East India Company’s rule. British East India Company was then ruling over the nation as the sovereign power, on behalf of the British Crown.

Began on 10th May 1857, the rebellion came out in the form of the mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company’s army in Meerut’s garrison town. The revolt then erupted into several other civilian rebellions and mutinies, mainly across the upper Gangetic plain and Central India. With the revolt, there was a rising threat to the British power across those regions, and it contained after 20th June 1858, with the defeat of the rebels in the Gwalior. Further, on 1st November 1858, the British granted amnesty to the rebels who were not involved in any murder.

The resentments born with the diverse perceptions fed the First War of Independence, including the invasive social reforms of the British style, tougher land taxes, and partial treatment of rich landowners and princes. Many of the Indians also rose against the British but many fought for them and the majority of the Indians were a complaint to the British rule.

First War of Independence Date and Year | When Did the First War of Independence Occur?

The First War of Independence lasted for 17 months and 22 days, and it lasted from 10th May 1857 to 1st November 1858.

First War of Independence 1857

Where Did the First War of Independence Occur?

The First War of independence, also popular as the Indian Mutiny and Revolt of 1857 was a widespread yet unsuccessful rebellion against British Rule in India. The War began in Meerut by the Sepoys (the Indian troops) who were serving the British East India Company, and then it spread across Delhi, Agra, Lucknow, and Kanpur.

Who Gained Victory in the First War of Independence?

During the First War of independence, due to several reasons, the Indian Freedom Fighters lost the fight against the British and the British East India Company received the victory. However, in the hearts of the Indian citizens, the Freedom Fighters who sacrificed their lives during the revolt are still alive as the champions.

Who Were The Two Rival Sides During The Revolt of 1857?

The revolt of 1857 or the First War of Independence was fought between the British East India Company and some Freedom Fighters of India. The revolt began due to some clashes rising among the Indian troops serving the army of the British East India Company about the army policies and weapons.

How Did the First War of Independence Get Its Name?

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar popularized the name ‘First War of Independence’ for the first time in his book ‘The History of the war of the Indian Independence’ of 1909. The book was previously written in Marathi.

First War of Independence Victory

Why is the Revolt of 1857 Considered the First War of Independence?

The revolt of 1857 marked the conscious beginning of the Independence struggle against the British colonial tyranny. With it, many freedom fighters emerged out, and the British East India Company for the first time felt a risk to their rule in the Indian states. In some of the Indian regions, the war marked the end of the rule of the British East India Company.

What is the Immediate Reason Behind the First War of Independence?

The immediate reason for the First War of Independence was the introduction of the ‘Enfield’ rifle among the Indian troops serving the army of the British East India Company. The cartridge of the gun was required to be bitten off before being loaded to the gun. The Indian sepoys used to believe that either the greasing of the cartridge is done with pig fat or that it is made with cow fat. Both these were against the Hindu and Muslim religious ideologies and sentiments, thus the sepoys were reluctant for using such rifles. This was the moment that enraged the soldiers against the British.
<h3>What Were the Major Causes of the 1857 Revolt?

  • Religious and Social Causes: Racism was the key reason behind the 1857 revolt. It was because the Indians were exploited by the British and kept away from mixing with the Europeans. The British East India Company members also started to interfere in the cultural and religious affairs of the different communities of India and started torturing them in different ways.
  • Political Causes: The British expansion and conquer resulted in the spreading of unjust and harsh policies leading to the loss of the powers of Zamindars and Nawabs across several regions of India. This led to the introduction of some unfair policies like the policy of Trade and Commerce, the policy of the subsidiary alliance, the policy of doctrine of lapse, the policy of misgovernance, the policy of war and annexation, and others. Thus, the rulers who lost the states to the British naturally got against them and chose to side against the British East India Company during the 1857 revolt.
  • Economic Causes: Various reforms came out for the revenue and taxation systems and affected the peasants widely and adversely. The British government also imposed several administrative policies for the expansion of their territories.

First War of Independence Impact
<h3>What Was The Impact Of The 1857 Revolt?

The entire foundation of the British East India Company was heavily shaken by the 1857 revolt and the situation unveiled the inefficiency of the Company in handling the administration of India. The major impact of the revolt was the introduction of the Government of India act that got successful in abolishing the rules of the company and thus marking the beginning of the British raj that conferred the powers in the hands of the British government for ruling the nation directly through the representatives.

What Were The Major Causes Behind The Failure Of The Indian Fighters In The 1857 Revolt?

The major causes behind the failure of the Indian fighters in ousting the British from the country are as follows:

  1. There was a lack of a clear leader among the sepoys. There was also a lack of the plan by which the British would be routed.
  2. Indian rulers aiding the revolts did not come up with any plan for the nation after defeating the British.
  3. The majority of the north Indian regions were adversely affected by the revolt. The three major presidencies of Madras, Bombay, and Bengal were mostly unaffected.

Who Was The First Martyr Freedom Fighter of the First War of Independence?

The first martyr freedom fighter of the First War of Independence was Mangal Pandey.

What Were The Popular Awards For The Participants Of The First War of Independence?

  1. Victoria Cross: There were medals awarded to the British Armed forces’ and British Indian Army’s members during the 1857 revolt.
  2. Indian Mutiny Medal: Around 290,000 of these medals were awarded.
  3. Indian Merit Order: East India Company introduced this in 1837 and was then taken over by the Crown in 1858. It was the gallantry medal for the native soldiers between 1837 and 1907.

What Are Some Popular Films Related To The First War of Independence?

  1. Light of India, of 1929
  2. Bengal Brigade, of 1954
  3. Shatranj Ke Khilari, of 1977
  4. Junoon, of 1978, directed by Shyam Benegal
  5. Mangal Pandey: The Rising, of 2005
  6. The Charge of the Light Brigade, of 1936
  7. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
  8. The Last Cartridge, and incident of the Sepoy rebellion in India, of 1908.
  9. Victoria & Abdul, of 2017
  10. Manikarnika: The Queen of Jhansi, of 2019

What are the Popular Works Of Literature Related to the First War of Independence?

  1. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
  2. Night runners of Bengal, a novel by John Masters
  3. The Siege of Krishnapur, a novel by J. G. Farrell
  4. Flashman in the Great Game, a novel by George MacDonald Fraser
  5. Two Sherlock Holmes stories of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Sign of the Four and The Adventure of the Crooked Man
  6. The Great Train Robbery, a novel by Michael Crichton
  7. Fictional novella A Flight of Pigeons, by Ruskin Bond
  8. The Steam House, a novel by Jules Verne
  9. A Passage to India, a novel by E. M. Forster
  10. The face of the Waters, a novel by Flora Annie Steel