A New Combined History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions Chapter 5 South India : The Vijayanagar and Bahmani Kingdoms.
A New Combined Text Book of History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions (D.N Kundra, Goyal Brothers Prakashan)
These Solutions are part of A New Combined History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions. Here we have given. A New Combined History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions Chapter 5 South India : The Vijayanagar and Bahmani Kingdoms.
I. Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each
When and between whom the battle of Talikot was fought ?
In 1565, a fierce battle was fought at Talikot between the rulers of Vijayanagar Empire and Bahmani kingdom. The forces of the Vijayanagar kingdom were completely defeated and the kingdom was completely ruined. Sada Shiva, the last ruler of the Vijayanagar Empire was defeated by the Bahmani state in this battle.
What were the causes of conflict between the Vijayanagar rulers and the Bahmani kings ?
The reasons for the conflict between the Vijayanagar and Bahmani kings were the following :
- Both the kingdoms claimed Raichur Doab lying between Krishna and Tungabhadra because of its fertile and rich land.
- Both wanted to conquer Golconda because of its diamond mines.
- Both of them were ambitious and wanted to control the whole inusila peninsula. As such the Bahmani and Vijayanagar kingdom were continuously at war with each other.
Name any two features of the administration of Vijay nagar.
- The Vijayanagar rulers paid great attention to the welfare of people. Most of the land revenue and other taxes were used for public welfare.
- The king was the highest court of appeal. The criminals Were severely punished.
Why did the Bahmani kingdom break up and w hat was the result ?
There were many reasons which led to the break up of the Bahmani kingdom. Religious intolerance, constant wars with neighbours, the pleasure seeking style of the rulers and mutual quarrels between Deccan} arid the Irani groups were the main causes. Moreover the later Bahmani rulers were weak and incompetent. After the death of Gawan, the Bahmani kingdom crumbled as there were no competent ministers. As a result Bahmani kingdom broke into five independent states of Bijapur, Golkunda, Ahmednagar, Berar and Bidar which were later conquered by the Mughals.
Write in brief about the Vithalswami Temple.
The Vithalswami Temple at Vijayanagar is a fine specimen of art and architecture of that time. It is situated within a rectangular court, nearly three times the size of the Hazara Rama Temple. Its mandapa, three gopurams, towers over the sanctum are characterised by bold and elegant designs.
II. Answer the following questions in 80-100 words each,
Who was Krishna Deva Raya and why is he remembered ?
Krishan Deva Raya, who ruled from A.D. 1509 to A.D. 1530, was the greatest and most important ruler of the Vijayanagar kingdom. He is remembered because during his reign the city of Vijayanagar was very prosperous. He marched across the Bahmani kingdom which had broken into five different states – He also defeated the rulers of Bijapur and Orissa. He was a great administrator. He built temples and palaces. He was also a great scholar of Sanskrit and Telugu. He also patronised learned men. He was a shrewd statesman who is remembered for the glory he brought to Vijayanagar. ‘
Who was Mahmud Gawan ? Describe briefly his services to the Bahmani kingdom ?
Mahmud Gawan was a Persian merchant who came to India and took service with the Bahmani rulers, Ala-ud-Din II in A.D. 1453. He served the State as a wazir under different Bahmani rulers. He encouraged trade and brought prosperity to the kingdom. He also controlled the quarrelling nobles with a firm hand. He took several steps for the improvement of agriculture. He was also a great patron of art. His rival nobles killed him in A.D. 1481. After his death, the glory of the Bahmani kingdom declined.
What do you know about the cultural achievements in the South under the Vijayanagar rulers?
We get a fair idea about the cultural and architectural achievements of the Vijayanagar rulers from the foreign accounts. These rulers built grand palaces and splendid temples. Vithalaswami Temple and Hazara Rama Temple are fine specimens of that time. Both the temples are exquisite. Their mandapas, gopurams and towers over the sanctum are beautifully sculptured.Literature made a rapid progress. Languages like Telugu, Sanskrit and Tamil were studied. Logic, philosophy, music and dance were taught. The art of painting and carving on wood and ivory was highly advanced.
What are the chief characteristics of Gol Gumbaj of Bijapur ?
The Gol Gumbaj at Bijapur is the tomb of Muhammad Adil Shah.It is an architectural wonder. Percy Brown rightly said, “It is one of the largest and most remarkable single Muslim building in India.” The chief features of Gol Gumbaj are :
- Its dome which has an external diameter of 43.2 meters is the largest dome in the world.
- A combination of interesting arches have been used to support this dome.
- At the base of the dome a bold foliation has been beautifully designed so as to conceal the joints.
- Both the exterior and interior of the dome are plain but impressive. .
- They are four towers each having seven stores with a small dome at the top.
- The minarets on four comers balance the large dome in such a way that it looks elegant and proportionate.
- Its ‘whispering gallery’ gives rise to multiple echoes.This building is one of the most splendid monument of the Bahmani Sultans.
III. Fill in the blanks with the right word/words from those given in brackets :
- Krishnadcve Raya died in 1530 A.D.
- After Mahmud Gawan the Bahmani kingdom began to decline.
- The Vijayanagar rulers built the Vithalswami temple.
- The battle of Talikot was fought in 1563.
- A fter the death of Mahmud Gawan the Bahmani empire was divided into five independent states.
A. Additional Questions :
Who was the founder of the Vijayanagar Kindgom ? Who was its most important ruler ?
The Vijayanagar kingdom was founded by two brothers, Harihara and Bukka Rai in A.D. 1336. Among the 16 rulers of the Vijayanagar Empire who ruled for 230 years, Krishna Deva Raya was the most important ruler and the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar kingdom.
Who was the founder of Bahmani kingdom and who were its important rulers ?
Hassan Gangu, a great and powerful noble, assumed the title of Ala-ud-Din Hassan Shah Bahman. He founded the Bahmani kingdom in A.D. 1347 which lasted for about 180 years up to A.D. 1526. Some of its important rulers were Bahman Shah, Muhammad Shah I, Firoz Shah and Ala-ud-Din II.
B. Match the following.
C. Answer the following questions.
What steps did Krishnadeva Raya take to make the Vijayanagar empire rich and prosperous ?
Krishnadeva Raya took various steps to make the Vijayanagar empire rich and prosperous like :
- He encouraged foreign trade with the Portuguese.
- He collected good revenue from them by imposing custom duties and other taxes.
- He took active steps to promote agriculture.
- Importance was given for increasing irrigation facilities by building dams and canals.
What was his contribution to literature and art ?
Krishnadeva Raya was a great patron of art and literature. He was himself a Sanskrit scholar and a good Telegu poet. He maintained a magnificent court and encouraged poets and learned men.
What is the significance of the Battle of Talikota ?
In the battle of Talikota the five kingdoms of Bijapur, Ahmadanagar, Berar, Golconda and Bidar formed an alliance against Vijayanagar kingdom and gave it a crushing defeat. Due to this battle the Hindu empire in the South was totally finished.
Mention two important features of each of the following in the Vijayanagar empire :
(1) Central government
(2) Provincial government.
- Central government —
(a) The king was the head of the administration and he was considered an absolute ruler and his will was law.
(b) A council of ministers chosen by him assisted him in administering the empire.
- Provincial government —
(a) The whole empire was divided into six provinces and each province was placed under the charge of a governor.
(b) The provinces were further divided into districts and each district consisted of a number of villages.
What major change was introduced in the village administration of the Vijayanagar empire ?
The village administration was at the bottom of the administrative ladder. The old feudal system was revived and hereditary officers governed the village.
What measures did the Vijayanagar rulers take to develop agriculture ?
During the reign of Vijayanagar rulers forests were cleared to bring more land under cultivation. Many canals, irrigation tanks and dams were built to improve and increase agriculture.
Why were there no major social or cultural changes during the Vijayanagar empire ?
The Vijayanagar rulers followed ancient Vedic customs; therefore there was no major social or cultural changes during that time. The Society was quite conservative and was governed by religious norms. The caste system was rigid and Brahmanas were considered superior and these religious supremos did not allow to have much social or cultural changes.
How do we know that the Vijayanagar rulers were liberal and followed a policy of religious tolerance ?
The Vijayanagar rulers were staunch Hindus but they were tolerant and liberal in their outlook. They employed Muslims in their army and administration. There was no discrimination between Christians, Jews, Muslims and Hindus.
Briefly describe Hampi, the capital city of Vijayanagar.
Vijayanagar the capital city was a splendid city. The city was surrounded by seven walls and its streets were well laid out. The city had beautiful gardens, lakes, mansions and temples. Flowers grew in abundance there. People were rich, they wore diamonds, rubies, pearls and emeralds which were sold openly in crowded bazaars.
Name two important sources of information about the Vijayanagar empire.
Two important sources of information about the Vijayanagar empire had been received from travellers like Domingo Paes and Abdur Razzaq.
What was the extent of the Bahmani kingdom ?
Bahmani kingdom stretched from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal and it also included the whole of northern Deccan with the river Krishna as its southern boundary
Briefly discuss the conflict between the Vijayanagar and Bahmani kingdoms over the Raichur Doab.
The Raichur Doab was a fertile area, that touched the southern boundary of Bahmani kingdom and northern boundary of Vijayanagar empire. This area become a battleground for both the kingdoms as each one wanted to rule over it because it was a rich source of revenue. It constantly passed on from one hand to another till finally the issue was finished after the defeat of Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota.
Briefly discuss the achievements of Mahmud Gawan as a :
(1) Successful general
(2) Capable administrator
- Successful general — As a competent and successful general Mahmud Gawan enlarged the boundaries of the kingdom and recaptured the important port of Goa from the Vijayanagar kingdom.
- Capable administrator — He was also a capable administrator. He promoted and encouraged agriculture a great deal. As a result the kingdom become economically prosperous.
What was Mahmud Gawan’s contribution to education and learning ?
Mahmud Gawan was a learned man and a patron of learning. He built a madarasa in the capital city of Bedar and donated his private collection of 3,000 books. He gave scholarships to poor and deserving students.
What was the actual position of the Bahmani kings in the administrative set-up ?
The Bahmani king in theory were powerful but in practice authority was depended on the strength of his army. Weak Sultans were controlled by the Ulemas and powerful nobles.
What did the Bahmani rulers do to patronize Islam ?
To patronize Islam the Bahmani rulers built many beautiful mosques in the capital cities of Gulbarga and Bidar. Madarasas and libraries were also set-up to promote Islamic studies and Persian and Arabic were used as court language.
What is the most outstanding feature of the Gol Gumbaz?
Gol Gumbaz has an enormous whispering dome. In this dome the whisper returns back nine times to the person who carries it out.
Why were the sultans of the Deccan easily overpowered by the Mughal emperor of the north ?
The Sultans of the Deccan were in constant war among each other because of their mutual rivalries and due to this they also lost much of their wealth and become prey of the Mughal emperor of the North.
D. State whether the following are true or false.
- The founders of the Vijayanagar empire brought the whole of South India, from the Tungabhadra to Cape Comorin, under their control.
- The Vijayanagar empire had established trade relations with the Dutch.
- Vijayanagar was one of the wealthiest kingdoms in the Deccan in the 15th and 16th centuries CE. True
- Mahmud Gawan slept on a mat and ate in earthen vessels.
- The Bahmani rulers used Persian and Arabic as court languages.
- Mahmud Begara founded the city of Ahmedabad.
- Sangram Singh was popularly known as Rana Sanga.
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