A New Combined History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions Chapter 12 The Union Executive.
A New Combined Text Book of History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions (D.N Kundra, Goyal Brothers Prakashan)
These Solutions are part of A New Combined History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions. Here we have given. A New Combined History & Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions Chapter 12 The Union Executive.
I. Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each :
What are the qualifications of a person who seeks election to the office of the President ?
To seek election to the high office of the President of India should have the following qualifications :
- He should be a citizen of India.
- He should be atleast thirty five years of age at the time of. election.
- He should not be an insolvent or bankrupt.
- He should not hold any office of profit under the Central or State Government.
- He should not be a pronounced offender or a sentenced criminal under the law of the land.
What are the judicial powers of the President in respect of an offender w ho is sentenced to death by the Supreme Court.
In respect of an offender who is sentenced to death by the Supreme Court, the President has the power to commute the death sentence to imprisonment for life or otherwise.
What are the main functions of the Vice-President ?
The main functions of the Vice-President are the following:
- He is an ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As such, he maintains order in the House to perform parliamentary proceedings. In case of disorder he may adjourn the House. He also allocates time for different kinds of business in the House.
- The Vice-President takes over as the President if the office of the President falls vacant in case of President’s death, official leave, illness or absence from the country. Till a new President is elected he receives all the privileges granted to a President.
What arc the two main functions of the Cabinet ?
- The cabinent Ministers are full fledged ministers who hold important portfolios like Defence, Finance, Home etc.
- They are the trusted colleagues of the Prime Minister and he always consults them. So, they take part in the important decisions of the government.
Mention the various categories of the Union Ministers.
The Union Ministers headed by the Prime Minister consist of three categories of Ministers.
- The Cabinat Ministers.
- Ministers of State.
- Deputy Ministers.
What do you mean by the principle of collective responsibility ?
The principle of collective responsibility means that ministers work as a team and the council of ministers, as a single body, is responsible to the Lok Sabha for the general conduct of the affairs of the government. The decisions taken by the council are not regarded as the policy of a minister but is binding to the whole cabinet.
If a vote of no-confidence is passed against one minister, the whole Council of Ministers has to resign. Similarly, the resignation of the Prime Minister means the resignation of the entire ministry.
Who are the people who really execute the laws ?
Whereas the Cabinet only formulates the policies the real execution is left to the civil or public servants These civil servants are called f.A.S. officers and they hold key positions in their respective sphere.
II. Answer the following questions, in 80-100 words each :
How are the President and the Vice President elected ?
- Election of the President:
The President of India is elected indirectly by an Electoral College which consists of
(a) Elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of all federating states.
(b) Elected members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
The voting power of all the elected members of the Parliament is made equal to the voting power of all elected members of the Legislative Assemblies in the countries so that the states should not have an upper hand in the election of the President
- Election of the Vice President:
The Vice-President is elected by an Electoral College, consisting of members of both Houses of the Parliament. No State legislature is involved. The procedure of his election consists of a secret lot, proportional representation and single transferable vote. An absolute majority of the votes polled is also required for the election of the Vice-President.
Who is the Chief Executive of the Indian Union ? State any two of his executive, legislative and judicial powers ?
The President is the Chief Executive of the Indian Union.
- He appoints the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister of the country. On Prime Minister’s advice, he appoints the council of ministers.
- He appoints the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.
Legislative Powers :
- The President summons and prorogues the sessions of Parliament and may dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term on the advice of the Prime Minister.
- No bill can become a law without his signature. All money bills require his approval.
- The President appoints the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court of India and the State High Courts.
- He has the power to grant pardon, remit or suspend a sentence or punishment on any appeal of mercy. He can commute a death sentence to life
What arc the chief powers or functions of the Prime Minister ? Why is his position so important ?
The Prime Minister occupies an important position in the Government. He enjoys vast powers and controls the entire administration. Some of his powers are :
- He selects the members of the Council of Ministers who are formally appointed by the President.
- He allocates work to the members of the Council of Ministers.
- He supervises whether all the Ministers are working properly or not.
- He resolves differences between the Ministers. Thus he acts as a co-ordinator so that the administration is carried on smoothly.
- He acts as a link between the President and the Council of Ministers.
- He is the spokesman of the Government.
- He is the leader of the Lok Sabha and conveys its feelings whenever necessary.
- He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and of the Council of Ministers.
- He can ask the ministers not doing their duty well to quit.
- He advises the President on appointments of Judges to the Supreme Court, Governors and Ambassadors etc.
- He also advises the President to summon, prorogue or dissolve the Lok Sabha.
His position is so important because, he is the head of the Lok Sabha. The President is only a nominal leader and he is the real executive head. With a majority of Lok Sabha at his backing, he becomes the actual ruler of the country,
Under what circumstances car. the President proclaim a State of Emergency .
The President can proclaim a state of emergency if he feels that
- There is a danger of foreign invasion or of a civil war insurgency or any other such case.
- The constitutional machinery has broken down because of political uncertainties or otherwise.
- There is financial instability in the country.
Thus the President has the power to declare emergency to meet abnormal or difficult situations.
What qualities are expected in a Public or Government Servant ?
There are a number of qualities expected of a public servant.
- He should be intelligent so that he can understand his work well.
- He should be honest and hardworking.
- He should be polite, co-operative and should be ready to serve selflessly.
III. Fill in the blanks :
- The President of India is elected by an Electroal College.
- The President is bound to act on the advice of Prime Minister.
- The Vice-President is the chairman of the council of states.
- The Vice-President is elected for a period of 5 years.
IV. Tick Mark (✓) the right statement and cross (✗) the wrong ones :
- The President presides over the meetings of the Cabinet. (✗)
- The Prime Minister acts on the advice of the President, (✗)
- Ali the Ministers swim and sink together. (✓)
- The Cabinet includes all categories of Ministers, (✗)
V. Additional Questions :
How can the office of the President fall vacant ?
The office of the President can fall vacant under the following conditions:
- In case of the death of the President.
- In case the President resigns.
- The President may be impeached if he acts against the provisions of the Constitution or is considered guilty of corruption etc.
Who are Civil Servants and how are they selected ?
The Civil Servants or the Public Servants are the administrative or permanent executives. These Civil Servants at the center are selected by the Union Public Service Commission and they are called I.A.S. officers. Similarly the different State Public Service Commissions hold the competitive examinations and select the officers of the Provincial Civil Service (P.C.S.). These Civil Officers hold key positions in different spheres.
Name any five Presidents and Prime Ministers of India.
Dr. Rajendra Prashad, Dr. Radhakrishnan, Mr. V.V. Giri, Dr. K.R. Nayanan and Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam are the names of the five Presidents of India.
Pt. Javvahar Lai Nehru, Sh. Lai Bahadur Shastri, Smt. Indira Gandhi. Sh. Atal Behari Vajpayee and Sh. I.K. Gujral have served as Prime Minister of India.
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